Southeast Asia as a Fruit Supplier to China
Edited by Bill Pritchard
Nattapon Tantrakoonsab and Wannarat Tantrakoonsab
In the past five years, exports of Thai durian have been increasing consistently, dominating the Chinese market. In this study, key informant interviews and analyses of the secondary data revealed changes that affect durian exports, including increasing Chinese demand, the emergence of new durian planting areas, the expansion of the processed durian market, and transportation improvements in Mekong region countries. The empirical analysis also demonstrated that Chinese entrepreneurs have expanded their roles in the value chain to replace Thai entrepreneurs. Although farmers and packing plants may presently benefit from the increasing export volume of durian, concerns arise about the total value capture of the entirety of Thai stakeholders.
Aungkana Kmonpetch and Waranya Jitpong
Longan is one of three largest tropical fruit export items in Thailand. Over the past decade, increased investment from China in packing houses in production areas has underpinned the tremendous growth of fresh longan exports to China. Reflecting on the trait of the Chinese market that puts less importance on credence attributes than on product attributes of fresh fruits, firms from outside the supply chain as well as incumbent downstream firms appear to have invested in packing houses. The rising number of packing houses, however, did not always translate to intensifying competition among them, which is represented by the stagnant farm gate price of longan. While it is evident that Chinese investment has boosted fresh longan exports to China, its ramifications on value capture of Thai stakeholders are uncertain.
Edited by Jan Svejnar and Justin Y. Lin
New Responses to New Challenges
Edited by Robert L. Clark, YoungWook Lee and Andrew Mason
Reducing Inequality, Boosting Mobility and Productivity
Edited by David Neumark, Yong-seong Kim and Sang-Hyop Lee
David Neumark, Yong-seong Kim and Sang-Hyop Lee
Education is a subject of never-ending public attention, and that attention has contributed to numerous reforms. One starting point in the search for better human capital policy is a careful review of past accomplishments and shortcomings of the education system, as well as future challenges facing it. Moreover, for most people the goals of human capital policy encompass the efficiency and effectiveness of policy, as well as its contribution to equity and social and economic mobility. The topics of this volume therefore delve into the quality of education, the effectiveness of public school systems and means of improving them, the competitiveness and accountability of higher education, and linkages between education and labor market outcomes. The authors focus on Korea and the United States. The Korean education system can be credited for much of the remarkable economic growth achieved by the country in recent decades, during its transformation into an industrialized country. The economy during this period is regarded as a textbook case of taking a leap from being a marginal player in the global economy to being a leading one. Many factors must be taken into account to explain this transition. Among them, the country’s education system, well designed and effective for its time, played an essential role in achieving both industrialization and social mobility. In terms of the quantity and quality of its human capital, Korea has made astonishing progress since regaining its independence in the late 1940s. With the rapid expansion of enrollment in both primary and secondary schools, the literacy rate increased from about 20 percent in 1945 to almost 100 percent today. The proportion of the population with tertiary education is the highest among the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. The expansion of education was accompanied by a soaring academic record. Recent international achievement tests, such as the OECD’s Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), have ranked Korea at the top in mathematics, reading and sciences.