This chapter highlights the power of volunteerism as a method for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. It emphasizes the importance of a relational approach in helping to energize and sustain locally appropriate strategies. Using case studies from Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Western Australia and the Philippines, it analyses methods to facilitate voluntary action that makes practical contributions. The case studies demonstrate that the nature and quality of relationships are key to successful voluntary action for sustainability. Volunteerism is shown to have increased the respective community’s capacity to tackle sustainability issues itself strengthening reciprocity, relationships, capacity and ownership. The four methodological principles highlighted for successful voluntary action embed mutual learning and accountability, reciprocal benefit, and foster synergies over trade-offs.
Peter Devereux, Laura Stocker and Kirsten Holmes
Dora Marinova, Jin Hong, Vladislav Todorov and Xiumei Guo
Innovations are the building blocks for a transition to sustainability. This covers a broad range of technologies including incremental, disruptive, breakthrough and revolutionary (or radical) technological innovations. The chapter puts forward an assessment framework which should form part of any decision-making related to new technologies in business as well as support by government and civil society. It responds to the requirements of the current 6th technological wave in delivering solutions to energy, transport and industry, triggering displacement of old technologies, management and philosophical paradigms and encouraging the new health- and healing-related wave. The framework starts from the technical knowledge and moves to risks, changes in markets and links within society, followed by social, environmental, economic and health impacts, and defining the sustainability aim, supporting policies and links to the global green system of innovation.
Understanding how cities are shaped by transport priorities through urban fabric theory creates a new and more sustainable approach to the planning and assessment process in transport and town planning. Four tools are developed in this chapter from the theory: (1) a strategic framework that includes the kind of urban fabric within which any project is located; (2) benefit-cost ratios that incorporate wider economic benefits, especially agglomeration economies in each fabric; (3) avoidable costs which assess lost opportunities from the kind of urban development facilitated by the infrastructure chosen; and (4) value capture and value creation opportunities that can help finance the infrastructure if they are used to create walking and transit urban fabric.
Finance and space are among the most important considerations when planning for infrastructure, such as rail transit, roads or footpaths. They also impact on decisions related to building massing which gives the form of a city, building setbacks from the thoroughfares which shape the public realm, and lands for green parks and ecological reserves which enable human and natural health. The chapter explains three models around the pillars of sustainability (environment, economy and culture and society) focused on transportation infrastructure and built form at the global, regional and local level. They help stakeholders and decision-makers make informed choices for the two elements between setting policy and achieving goals – the budget and space. The gaps between vision and action can be assessed in the process of analysing the models using spreadsheets and maps, including Google Earth, and other free-to-use or common software.
While national policies and strategies are required to direct government efforts towards a more sustainable economy and society, it is through the disruptive process of entrepreneurship that economic and social transformation is realised. This chapter presents a practical framework for assessing the systems that shape entrepreneurial opportunity and behaviour promoting change at meta- (values, norms and the social consensus), macro- (economic and development policies, strategies and programmes), meso- (regulating the economy and its actors) and micro- (capability of firms) level. The framework allows the conditions for entrepreneurship related to sustainability to be assessed. Policy makers and practitioners can look more closely at the ways in which entrepreneurship can more effectively lead to sustainability, including through combined efforts at all levels.
Diana Bogueva, Talia Raphaely, Dora Marinova and Mira Marinova
Using the example of excessive meat consumption, this chapter outlines the need for social marketing to promote behavioural changes for the common good. It develops a new approach, methodology and model termed sustainability social marketing tailored towards current priorities associated with climate change, human health and ecological well-being. The meat consumption problem is explained as an example of existing ample scientific evidence about the environmental and health co-benefits of reduction in which social marketing can encourage and trigger positive changes. A new 4S (sustainability, strength, self-confidence and sharing) marketing mix is proposed to be used to influence the social acceptability of a transition towards sustainability, including reduction in meat consumption.
Jenny Pope and Svetla Petrova
Sustainability assessment has emerged as a distinct form of impact assessment. It is a process which commences before an action is taken in order to inform decision-makers about the potential future consequences of such development and elicit appropriate responses. Sustainability assessment retains many characteristics of the techno-rational roots of impact assessment as a governance mechanism. This chapter puts forward two emerging methodological approaches which have the potential to overcome some of the limitations of the currently prevailing practice and greatly strengthen the application of sustainability assessment as a governance mechanism for sustainability. They are: systems analysis and deliberative approaches, to be applied within an eight-step process, covering: decision to conduct a sustainability assessment; identification of the desired outcome and hence the decision question; establishment of sustainability goals and criteria; identification of alternatives and option to achieve the outcome; prediction and evaluation of the impacts of each alternative; selection and enhancement of the preferred option; approval decision and announcement; and implementation, monitoring and follow-up.
Current methods of making public decisions and governance do not favour sustainability. Furthermore, democracies regularly fail to make long-term decisions in the interests of all humankind, let alone other living beings and future generations. To ensure long-term public interests are protected, the public itself needs to be engaged, provided with good information, and, most importantly, authentically represented. The chapter outlines sortition as a form of self-government and a way to establish representative bodies which deliberate over a particular issue in order to deliver better decisions. Sortition refers to the use of random selection (or scientific sampling) of people to perform a particular public function and it can take the form of agenda councils, interest panels, review panels, policy juries, rules, and oversight councils, and can be implemented at a local, state, national, or global level.
Janette Hartz-Karp and Leen Gorissen
A transition to sustainability requires radical change in our cultures, ways of organizing and practices. Our value regime needs to shift from exploitation to regeneration, from a profit focus to principles of interdependence, cooperation and partnership. The chapter examines how transition initiatives can assist in this journey. Two different initiatives are presented: one instigated mostly bottom-up by the grassroots in Europe; and one mostly top-down by governance in Australia. Irrespective of the difference in their approach, both initiatives arrived at the same conclusion, namely the need for more mutual government and public support, involving changes in roles for government officials and citizens that foster value shifts, increase collective agency and enhance distributed leadership.
Rangelands, defined as arid and semi-arid grasslands, scrublands and tundra, make up approximately 50 percent of the earth’s terrestrial surfaces. Historically the lack of rain and its irregularity meant they were used for nomadic grazing. Today due to a range of factors, including grazing pressure, most rangelands are significantly degraded. At the same time, many have become major mineral and energy production centres, making them economic engines of international significance. Much of the wealth, however, is exported to urban areas and little is invested into restoring the land from which it was generated. Based on the Australian experience, this chapter identifies ten emergent characteristics or bespoke methodologies common, to varying degrees, across a number of rangeland restoration programmes that are design based and focus on creating new rangeland systems, rather than planning-based interventions seeking to achieve agreed goals.