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The State, Business and Education

Public-Private Partnerships Revisited

Edited by Gita Steiner-Khamsi and Alexandra Draxler

The State, Business and Education contributes to the ongoing debates surrounding the effects of public funding of private entities by examining the ways in which they affect the quality and equity of those services, and the realization of human rights. Using case studies from both the developing and developed world this book illustrates the variety of ways in which private actors have expanded their involvement in education as a business.
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Edited by Gita Steiner-Khamsi and Alexandra Draxler

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Mats Benner

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The New Global Politics of Science

Knowledge, Markets and the State

Mats Benner

Science has become a central political concern with massive increases in public investments and expectations, but resources are embedded in a complex web of societal expectations, which vary between countries and regions. This book outlines an insightful understanding of science policy as both concerning the governance of science itself (priority-setting, funding, organization and articulation with polity, society, and economy) and its extra-organizational connections, in terms of higher education, innovation and national policy concerns.
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Ju-Ho Lee, Hyeok Jeong and Song Chang Hong

In the previous chapter, we suggested the need for education diversification reform, which includes policies to improve the quality of education, particularly in vocational skills and social and emotional skills, as well as policies aimed at enhancing the quality of university education while easing the exit of low-quality universities. The Meister High School was the key policy of the education diversification reform. Vocational high schools in Korea have continuously deteriorated since their glory days in the 1970s, and such change seems to be one of the leading causes behind the education bubble. An important reason why Korean parents spent the enormous expense on private tutoring and the tuition fees of low-quality universities for their children was that vocational high schools could not guarantee good jobs for the graduates. Hence, the vocational education track was not a good alternative to the general education track to universities. However, Korea’s industries have continuously asked for stronger vocational and technical education because many graduates of low-quality universities are not equipped with adequate skills and not ready to work in occupations that once were filled by graduates of vocational high schools. Therefore, Meister High Schools, which not only cater to the needs of industries but also provide students and parents with an alternative to low-quality universities, are expected to burst the education bubble.

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Ju-Ho Lee, Hyeok Jeong and Song Chang Hong

Defined both as a stock of embodied and disembodied knowledge, human capital is formed through investments in not only schooling and job training but also in research and development (R & D) and informal knowledge transfers. While knowledge and skills embodied in workers augment labor productivity and physical capital inputs, disembodied knowledge manifests in papers, books, patents, and algorithms, contributing to product and process innovations at the firm and industry levels (Ehrlich, 2007). In 2012, Korea’s expenditure in R & D as a percentage of GDP reached 4.3 percent, which was the highest in the world. Korea also had the largest number of researchers per total population among the top 10 countries in R & D expenditure. In particular, Korea is home to several large conglomerate firms such as Samsung and Hyundai, which are world leaders of providing innovative products in some sectors. However, there has been a rising concern that Korean researchers in government-funded research institutes (GRIs) and universities are neither contributing to creating new opportunities for the economy nor solving big societal challenges (Song et al., 2014).

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Ju-Ho Lee, Hyeok Jeong and Song Chang Hong

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Ju-Ho Lee, Hyeok Jeong and Song Chang Hong

There is little argument about the critical role of human capital in the process of development. There are a variety of dimensions in the sources of human capital formation in real life, from formal education at schools to on-the-job training at work places and R & D at research universities. We observe, however, that in fostering human capital formation, both academia and the international community of development aid have placed asymmetric attention to formal schooling, in particular to general education, although the emphasis has recently shifted from primary education to secondary and tertiary education. It is obvious that general education at schools is the backbone of human capital formation of any country so that the past emphasis on general schooling in promoting the development process of the less developed countries should be continued. However, it is equally obvious that vocational education, more broadly technical and vocational education and training (TVET), also plays a critical role in materializing the development potential of the less developed countries by various channels such as labor market income generation, poverty alleviation, effective school-to-work transition, and lowering youth unemployment. Here we argue the importance of vocational education in facilitating the development process in particular for developing economies, which either struggle to take off or are going through structural transformation, which has been relatively less emphasized in international development literature. Furthermore, by analyzing the recent Korea’s development cooperation project (BEAR Project) on vocational education and training for the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region, based on Korea’s own development experience, we attempt to draw important lessons about what the essential components of development aid would be in order to promote vocational education in terms of effective human capital formation, aligned with national development plans.

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Ju-Ho Lee, Hyeok Jeong and Song Chang Hong

Amid globalization and knowledge-based economies, many countries have given higher priority to education reforms. However, when it comes to specific goals, policy agendas, and strategies regarding education reform, consensus among countries has yet to be formed. For example, Korea strongly focused on lowering college advancement rates and reducing the test burdens on students. In contrast, increasing college enrollment rates and improving the test scores of students in secondary and primary schools are major goals of the U.S. and the U.K. Thus, the direction of Korea’s education reform may appear to be headed towards the opposite direction as those of the U.S. and the U.K. In Korea, as discussed in the previous chapter, the ‘education bubble’, which is defined as persistent increases in educational expenditures that do not contribute to human capital accumulation, formed since the 1990s when the surge of demand for higher education enlarged the size of private tutoring and low-quality colleges with their graduates receiving wages lower than high school graduates. Korea’s education bubble is the result of the quantity-oriented expansion of education, which was derived from the consistent demand for education amid low improvements in quality and weak horizontal differentiation among schools and colleges.

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Human Capital and Development

Lessons and Insights from Korea's Transformation

Ju-Ho Lee, Hyeok Jeong and Song Chang Hong

During recent decades, Korea has been one of only a handful of countries that have made the successful transformation to become a developed nation by simultaneously achieving persistent economic growth combined with a democratic political system. Experts and political leaders worldwide have attributed this achievement to investments in people or, in other words, the power of education. Whilst numerous books have highlighted the role of industrial policies, technological growth, and international trade in Korea’s development process, this is one of the first to focus on the role of human capital. It shows how the accumulation of human capital aided transformation and helps explain the policies, strategies and challenges that Korea faces now and in the future.