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Peter J. Buckley and Hinrich Voss

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Peter J. Buckley and Hinrich Voss

The rapid international expansion of Chinese businesses has evoked mixed perceptions in host countries and among policymakers. This literature review critically analyses rigorous studies on the motivation, background, strategy, and impact of Chinese outward foreign direct investment and the emergence of Chinese multinational enterprises (MNEs). It is thus informative for the next wave of academic research on Chinese and emerging market MNEs in international business, political economy, economic geography and political sciences. Written by two experts in the field, this valuable study provides an important backdrop for academics who intend to understand emerging market MNEs in order to advise policymakers.
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Peter J. Buckley and Hinrich Voss

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Peter J. Buckley and Hinrich Voss

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Shahid Yusuf

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Shahid Yusuf

China’s Global Economic Footprint is large and growing. In recent years, China has contributed a third or more to the growth of the global economy following its meteoric rise starting in the 1980s and gathering momentum in the 1990s. China has convincingly demonstrated the efficacy of investment and export-led growth as a model of development and has achieved economic stardom using a mix of industrial, trade and exchange rate policies within the framework of a gradually reforming socialist market economy. This Research Review explores China’s economy and will be an invaluable resource for China watchers and researchers, students and policymakers interested in learning from East Asia’s development, understanding how China transformed its economy and exploring how China might come to grips with the challenges ahead.
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Shahid Yusuf

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Shahid Yusuf

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Shahid Yusuf

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The classical origins of Akamatsu’s ideas: a missing link to David Hume’s ‘flying-manufacturers’ theory

The ‘Flying-Geese’ Theory of Multinational Corporations and Structural Transformation

Terutomo Ozawa

This chapter examines some important classical origins of Akamatsu’s ideas. While studying in Germany in 1924_26, Akamatsu was strongly influenced by a variety of the stages theories of development expounded by the German Historical School. As he himself acknowledged, ‘his’ idea of the infant-industry protection-driven, three-step sequence of import, domestic production, and export was directly borrowed from Friedrich List’s (1885/1966) book, The National System of Political Economy. However, why did Akamatsu fail to notice what may be called the ‘flying-manufacturers’ theory advanced by David Hume (1754/1985), a theory that no doubt adumbrated Akamatsu’s ‘flying-geese’ theory? This is probably because the German Historical School that stressed inductive reasoning and empiricism was at loggerheads with the British Classical School that by sharp contrast pursued deductive reasoning in search of universal abstract theories. Consequently, Akamatsu must have been blindsided by the German Historical School, missing a chance to read Hume’s writings. References: Hume, David (1754/1985), Essays: Moral, Political and Literary, ed. Eugene Miller, Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund. List, Friedrich (1885/1966), The National System of Political Economy, New York: Augustus M. Kelly Publishers.