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Innovation, Ethics and our Common Futures

A Collaborative Philosophy

Rafael Ziegler

The important yet contradictory role of innovation in society calls for a philosophy of innovation. Critically exploring innovation in relation to values, the economy and social change, Rafael Ziegler proposes a collaborative theory and practice of innovation that aims to liberate possibilities for our common futures.
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Rafael Ziegler

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Rafael Ziegler

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Edited by Oliver Laasch, Roy Suddaby, R. E. Freeman and Dima Jamali

Outlining origins of the field and latest research trends, this Research Handbook offers a unique and cutting-edge take on the numerous avenues to responsible management in the 21st century. Renowned contributors present iconic viewpoints that have formed the foundation of responsible management research, introducing cutting-edge conceptual lenses for the study of the responsible management process.
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Edited by Paresha Sinha, Jenny Gibb, Michèle Akoorie and Jonathan M. Scott

This Research Handbook offers contextualized perspectives on entrepreneurship in emerging economies. Emphasizing how national context profoundly shapes incentives for entrepreneurial efforts, chapters dissect the opportunities emerging from various institutions and social practices from the Middle East, North and Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. This Handbook is an ideal guide for researchers working on emerging economies, particularly those with an interest in global entrepreneurship.
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Mitsuru Kodama

Apple, a company that continuously brings about business innovations, achieved strategic innovation with its lineup of iPod, iPhone and iPad products and services enabled through convergence of diverse content and applications with a range of digital devices, based on the company’s “Digital Hub” vision. Apple’s redefining of its corporate boundaries to expand outwards from its Macintosh PC business into music distribution, smartphones and tablet PCs is also a good example of a corporate vision advancing for strategy transformation. In contrast, in spite of the fact that it had been way ahead of Apple with its successful commercialization of its “Walkman” portable music player, Sony lagged way behind in the music distribution business. This chapter analyses the major differences in the strategic actions of Apple and Sony, and presents the capabilities congruence achieved through asset orchestration processes to mobilize the different capabilities both inside and outside of the company leading to the Apple success (with the iPod and iTunes music store, and later the iPhone and iPad). Also, as a micro organizational strategy at the company, behind the success of their new product developments, was the achievement of integration through asset orchestration processes enabled by the formation of strategic communities (SC) (and boundary networks) at Apple. In contrast, Sony lacked elements of capabilities congruence within its group companies, and failed to integrate its different capabilities. This chapter describes the five dynamic capabilities (DC) at Apple, and how Apple successfully achieved strategy transformation by bringing congruence between these capabilities.

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Mitsuru Kodama

This chapter considers and analyzes micromanagement elements of dynamic capabilities in a large corporation, through the example of the American Cisco Systems. Through the company’s “collaboration management,” practitioners in all management layers overcome various contradictions and take up the challenge of new innovation through strategic collaboration by forming company-wide networked collaborative organizations. Cisco enables the processes of creative dialogue, understanding and cooperation, and prompt decision-making and action by demonstrating dynamic capabilities that span different business units, and thus simultaneously executes radical innovation to create the new businesses of the future while regularly reinforcing incremental innovation for the company’s main businesses. Demonstrating dynamic capabilities through strategic collaboration centered on all staff including the middle managers and the executive in the company in this way enables the best ideas and opinions to be taken up by the organization quickly, and enables study and action on various problems as a team. This chapter considers and analyzes capabilities congruence between the five elements of dynamic capabilities needed to achieve sustainable growth through strategic innovation enabled by Cisco’s collaborative management as it changes the actions of staff and its corporate culture.

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Mitsuru Kodama

This chapter presents the concept of “capabilities congruence,” which is a business factor in large corporations that brings about sustainable growth over the long term by achieving strategic innovation as the corporation enacts dynamic capabilities and strategic innovation capabilities. The chapter also clarifies three important insights about capabilities congruence (Insight-1: Dynamic congruence with the corporate capabilities (corporate systems) with environments; Insight-2: congruence between different capabilities within corporations (in corporate systems); Insight-3 congruence by orchestrating different co-specialized assets both in and out of corporations). As new perspectives, the chapter describes how leaders and managers in large corporations achieve congruence across diverse internal and external boundaries by perception and cognition of the changing boundaries between environments and corporate systems and between various capabilities in corporate systems, in regards to the process of changing capabilities between their own companies, the environment and other companies. In rapidly changing environments, factors for executing capabilities congruence dynamically are of great importance for a corporation to achieve strategic innovation. Moreover, regarding capabilities between Capabilities Maps and between the domains in those Capabilities Maps that are often born in large companies, this chapter discusses how negative interactions can seriously inhibit capabilities congruence.

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Mitsuru Kodama

This chapter clarifies the differences between the two types of capabilities indispensable to companies, “dynamic capabilities” and “ordinary capabilities,” by focusing on the dynamically changing characteristics of the boundaries of informal organizations. The chapter also clarifies the dynamic innovation process that companies need to achieve strategic innovation (incremental innovation and radical innovation) to grow sustainably. In addition, the chapter extracts the factors of capabilities (strategic innovation capabilities) required for sustainable growth through the continued execution of corporate incremental and radical innovation. The chapter presents the important “strategic innovation capabilities” of leading companies that entail the dynamic spiral of the two distinct types of capabilities on the time axis – the dynamic and ordinary capabilities on the Capabilities Map – which are skillfully used appropriately or combined to achieve fast or slow incremental innovation for exploitation and radical innovation for exploration.

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Mitsuru Kodama

Strategic innovation dynamically brings about strategic positioning through new products, services and business models, and is a dynamic view of strategy that enables a large corporation to maintain its competitiveness and establish sustainable growth. For these reasons, large corporations have to be innovators that can reinforce their existing positions (businesses) through incremental innovation, while at the same time constantly renew or destroy existing business through radical innovation. From detailed reviews of existing dynamic capabilities theories, and further theories deeply related to the characteristics of corporate or organizational capabilities, this book presents a theoretical model of a strategic innovation system (and a sustainable strategic innovation model) as a corporate system capability to enable a large company to achieve strategic innovation. Furthermore, through several case studies, the book discusses the importance of strategic innovation capabilities to achieve a dynamic spiral of the two completely different ordinary and dynamic capabilities on the Capabilities Map, skillfully used and combined to achieve swift or slow incremental innovation as exploitation and radical innovation as exploration. This final chapter presents implications gained from the theoretical framework of this book and a number of case studies, a conclusion, and future research issues.