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An International Perspective
James A. Cunningham and Albert N. Link
Andrew Johnston and Robert Huggins
The Process of Collaboration and Open Innovation
Andrew Johnston and Robert Huggins
Andrew Johnston and Robert Huggins
Tenghao Zhang, Pi-Shen Seet, Janice Redmond, Jalleh Sharafizad and Wee-Liang Tan
Until the mid-twentieth century, Southeast Asia and North America were the predominant destinations for Chinese emigrants. Amid the Voyage to Nanyang exodus, the California Gold Rush and the Transcontinental Railroad construction, millions of Chinese migrants, overwhelmingly from Guangdong and Fujian provinces in southern China, ventured to Southeast Asia and North America for better opportunities (Godley, 2002). When these early Chinese immigrants first arrived in the host countries, they were in effect sojourners aiming to remit sums of money to their families in China (Dana, 2014: 259). They also intended to return to China in their old age to enjoy the fruits of their ‘arduous labours in exile’ (Willmott, 1966: 254). For example, Loewen (1971: 27) argues that the early Chinese people in Mississippi were not true immigrants, but were sojourners and planning to return to China when ‘their task was accomplished’. These Chinese immigrants were faced with different levels of hostility from local residents, who saw them as greedy individuals, exploiting their advantageous economic position (for example, Chinese in Thailand; Coughlin, 1960). Members of the Chinese community often were excluded from many formal occupations, which led them to focus on the trade and commerce sectors and act as intermediaries between customers and producers. For example, Willmott’s (1966) study found that 84 per cent of Chinese immigrants in Cambodia were engaged in the commercial sector, which is significantly higher than the Cambodian average of 6.5 per cent. Appleton (1960) found that in the Philippines, ethnic Chinese held 23 per cent of the total commercial investment and nearly 30 per cent of the total investment in retail and import–export trade, despite only making up 1 to 2 per cent of the national population. Loewen (1971) found that 97 per cent of the Chinese immigrants in Mississippi, USA, were operating grocery stores.
Entrepreneurship has become a nearly universal synonym for proactive development and initiative worldwide, it generates considerable interest, thousands of professors teaching tens of thousands of classes worldwide, and generates a wealth of research (Aldrich, 2012) of which this encyclopedia is emblematic. For example, all the chapters are fundamentally encouraging and supportive of continuing and expanding entrepreneurship promotion and all its associated activities. Social media and entertainment are saturated with success stories of unicorns, that is, anomalies that fail to reflect the actual entrepreneurial environment (Aldrich and Ruef, 2018). However, from a purely social science perspective, no intervention is without weaknesses, and there are unanticipated consequences of nearly every attempt to advance one group over another (Doane, 2013; Koopmans, 2003; Levy, 2010). The discussion of entrepreneurial failure seems to have been swept under the proverbial rug, as we enthusiastically march on to promote solutions to problems often only poorly understood, such as inequality, lack of mobility and weak economic development. The field’s enthusiasm is effusive, as the noted scholar Don Kuratko (2005: 578) enthusiastically reports: ‘The revolution has begun in an economic sense, and the entrepreneurial perspective is the dominant force!’ Perhaps the most ubiquitous factor promoting entrepreneurship is the education sector, where interventions occur throughout the world, from kindergarten through postgraduate training and on to faculty and research scholars. Yet, despite the enthusiasm for training and preparing individuals, entrepreneurship support is a poorly understood and weakly researched domain. A recent systematic review reported that: Despite considerable enthusiasm in the public policy sphere, our review clearly demonstrates that research in the field provides only limited and highly idiosyncratic findings designed to help general and technology-based entrepreneurs to effectively succeed. Studies rarely utilize control populations and are based on weak theoretical backgrounds. They fail to incorporate state of the art methods and are typically cross sectional or of a case study nature. (Ratinho et al., 2020)
James M. Crick and David Crick
Coopetition is a fundamental entrepreneurial marketing strategy (Bouncken and Kraus, 2013; Bengtsson and Johansson, 2014; Granata et al., 2018; Crick, 2020a; Crick and Crick, 2020). It is the interplay between cooperation and competition, whereby competing firms share resources (for example, equipment and hardware) and capabilities (such as knowledge and experience) for mutually beneficial outcomes (Ritala and Hurmelinna- Laukkanen, 2013; Bengtsson and Raza-Ullah, 2016; Hannah and Eisenhardt, 2018). Since coopetition strategies are intended to provide companies with new resources, capabilities and opportunities that would not exist under individualistic business models, it is not surprising that an existing body of research surrounds the link between coopetition and company performance (Ang, 2008; Ritala, 2012; Gnyawali and Charleton, 2018; Crick, 2019a). A common theme throughout the broader cross-disciplinary literature is that higher-levels of coopetition lead to increased company performance (Bengtsson and Kock, 2014; Shu et al., 2017; Hoffmann et al., 2018; Crick et al., 2020a). Coopetition has been examined in various empirical contexts; for example, automotive manufacturers (Akpinar and Vincze, 2016), high-technology firms (Gnyawali and Park, 2011), airline carriers (Czakon and Dana, 2013), tourism service providers (Czakon and Czernek, 2016), agricultural markets (Felzensztein and Deans, 2013), craft breweries (Mathias et al., 2018) and sporting organisations (Crick and Crick, 2016a). However, entrepreneurs owning wine-producing businesses within various countries have been active in implementing coopetition strategies. Specifically, various countries’ wine sectors host high degrees of cooperativeness and competitiveness – ideal forces (industry dynamics) for studying coopetition (see, for example, Telfer, 2001; Dana and Winstone, 2008; Dana et al., 2013; Crick, 2018a; Felzensztein et al., 2019; Granata et al., 2019). Consequently, the purpose of this chapter is to highlight the benefits and drawbacks of coopetition strategies by utilising published work from the global wine industry. This is important, so that scholarly and practical recommendations can follow regarding the effective implementation of coopetition strategies by owner-managers in competitive business environments. In addition, this investigation emphasises certain under-researched issues that academics can pursue to strengthen the existing body of knowledge.
Donald F. Kuratko, Michael H. Morris and Jeffrey G. Covin
Large firms, especially those in maturing industries, must continually restructure and reinvent themselves, learning to become more innovative, if they hope to sustain themselves for the future (Kuratko et al., 2019). As innovation has emerged as a key contributor to sustainable advantage, corporate entrepreneurship (CE) is being embraced by executives as a focal point for organizational success (Ireland et al., 2009). Firms that are more entrepreneurial (that is, more adaptable, flexible, aggressive and innovative) are better positioned to not only respond to a dynamic, threatening and complex external environment, but create change in that environment. They do not take the external environment as a given, instead defining themselves as agents of change, leading customers instead of following them, creating new markets and rewriting the rules of the competitive game. However, despite the espoused and observed positive effects of CE, theoretical and empirical knowledge about the domain of CE and the entrepreneurial behavior on which it is based are key areas warranting greater attention (Hornsby et al., 2002; Dess et al., 2003; Hornsby et al., 2009). A fundamental ambiguity exists in the literature concerning what it means to have CE as a corporate strategy (Meyer and Heppard, 2000). Further, much is unknown about how CE is enacted in organizational settings.