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The focus on a monetized production economy is, for many post-Keynesians, a distinctive feature of the post- Keynesian school. Thus, it comes as no surprise that post- Keynesian monetary theory claims to be distinct from orthodox monetary theory. In the next section of thischapter, we go over the main claims of the post- Keynesian theory of money, credit and finance. In the third section, we put these into historical perspective. The fourth section deals with what has perhaps attracted the greatest amount of attention – the controversies between horizontalists and structuralists in post- Keynesian monetary theory. The fifth section is a discussion of the new developments in monetary policy implementation. The sixth section deals with the implications of these developments in the aftermath of the subprime financial crisis, while in the seventh section we assess these implications for public finance theory, tackling the socalled ‘neo- chartalist’ view. Finally, in the eighth section we discuss the integration of post- Keynesian monetary economics into post- Keynesian macroeconomics.