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Managing the Cooperative Enterprise

The Rise of Worker-Controlled Firms

Bruno Jossa

This book revolves around the idea that capitalism is not a democratic system and that a system of producer cooperatives, or democratically managed enterprises, gives rise to a new mode of production which is authentically socialist in essence and fully consistent with the ultimate rationale underlying Marx’s theoretical approach. The author argues that the cooperative firm system outlined in this book offers a rich array of non-economic benefits that justify its classification as a ‘genuinely socialist’ entity, with real potential for achieving true economic democracy.
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Bruno Jossa

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Daniela Prates

This paper provides an alternative view of monetary sovereignty (MS) from the Neo-Chartalist approach found in the Modern Money Theory literature. The differences between the author's approach to MS and Neo-Chartalism cover the following aspects: the nature of money, the acceptability of money, and the relationship between the central bank and the Treasury. The paper then analyses the relationship between MS, the currency hierarchy (CH), and policy space. The focus is placed on emerging-market economies. It is argued that emerging-market economies' policy space is determined by the interplay of two factors: the degree of MS and the position of national money (that encompasses the state and bank monies) within the CH.

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Víctor Manuel Isidro Luna and Francisco Antonio Martínez Hernández

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Ryan Woodgate

Corporate tax rates have been consistently falling around the world for decades now. This paper aims to explain the causes and consequences of this ‘global race to the bottom’. In particular, the author wishes to test the hypothesis that this race to the bottom is driven by demand-boosting corporate tax competition, where, contrary to traditional Kaleckian theory, lower corporate taxes may positively affect demand through increased investment due to multinational enterprises (MNEs) that seek higher net profits through (re)locating in low-tax jurisdictions. In order to do so, the author builds a general theory of the effect of average effective corporate tax rates (AECTRs) on MNE location. This theory is used to justify the addition of a tax-sensitive foreign direct investment channel in the investment function of a canonical Kaleckian model. As a result, this paper determines the conditions under which a country may be ‘tax-competition-led’, where lowering AECTRs increases demand through increased MNE investment and in spite of the negative effect on government expenditure given a balanced budget. The findings of this paper are that it is possible for an economy to be tax-competition-led, though it is unlikely in many cases given the existence of a coordination problem that lessens or nullifies the effect of lowering AECTRs when many countries do so simultaneously. The author refers to this problem as the ‘paradox of tax competition’, since, like other fallacies of composition commonly identified in Post-Keynesian thought, this is a phenomenon where the benefits of one country acting alone are reduced or eliminated if other countries act the same way at the same time. Based on this model, crude but nonetheless informative estimates are given that indicate that the race to the bottom has had a negative effect on demand in the vast majority of OECD countries. In this sense, the author finds that the persistence of policymakers to continue to compete on corporate taxes ‘imprudent’. Model-consistent policy recommendations are offered, chief among which are tax coordination or, failing that, technical changes in how individual countries collect corporation tax.

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Paulo R. Mota, Abel L.C. Fernandes and Paulo B. Vasconcelos

The austerity policies applied by the eurozone peripheral governments under the Troika financial assistance programmes have contributed to a sharp reduction in aggregate demand, regardless of the unconventional measures undertaken by the European Central Bank (ECB). The ECB decreased the interest rate on the main refinancing operations to zero and has been buying assets from banks on a massive scale under the Expanded Asset Purchase Programme. The fact that these extraordinary measures have not been enough to promote a strong recovery shifts the focus back onto fiscal policy. The value of impact fiscal multipliers and the size of hysteretic effects are key factors for assessing the effects of fiscal policy. There is widespread evidence that public expenditure multipliers are greater than one, especially when the economy is depressed. However, less is known about the importance of hysteresis effects. Using the linear play hysteresis operator, we find that hysteresis effects are important in the eurozone peripheral countries. Large fiscal impact multipliers combined with the presence of hysteresis implies that front-loaded austerity depresses the economy in the short run, and these effects may persist in the long run.

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Robert Rowthorn

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Gerardo Fujii-Gambero, Juan Carlos Moreno-Brid, Carlo Panico and Martín Puchet Anyul