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Basil Oberholzer

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Basil Oberholzer

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Basil Oberholzer

Global capitalism as we face it today has deprived countries of their autonomy in making economic policy decisions. This is even more true for small economies such as developing countries. If they want a chance to provide their populations with acceptable living conditions, they need to regain their scope of action. In particular, countries must be able to defend themselves against devastating macroeconomic events such as capital flight and currency crises. This book has delivered arguments for how poor countries may design macroeconomic strategies to foster economic development. After removing the external constraint and getting the system for their international payments right, developing countries are able to direct the domestic economy. Taxation and social expenditures on the one hand, but mainly public investment on the other hand, are important instruments to bring about economic prosperity and poverty reduction. With the reform of international payments, they can unfold their full potential because they no longer trigger exchange rate volatility, nor do they involve a drag on domestic demand caused by the twofold payment of imports and interest on foreign debt. No doubt, there are gaps in the analysis. It was argued at the beginning that inequality is an important factor determining both objective and subjective poverty. Yet, it has not been systematically integrated into the theoretical analysis. At least, however, the potential of economic policy to influence income distribution, be it by taxation and social transfers or by the public sector’s (intentional) impact on the labor market, has been highlighted. There is a sketch of how a development strategy can also direct the share of total income going to labor. This can be emphasized further, particularly regarding the harmful impact of inequality on a society’s health and violence. Poverty is a multidimensional issue to which this book cannot do justice. But a macroeconomically sound system is necessary to even think about how to reduce it.

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Development Macroeconomics

Alternative Strategies for Growth

Basil Oberholzer

This insightful book offers a comprehensive analysis of how macroeconomics can steer development and reduce poverty. It untangles how developing countries can apply effective economic policies in spite of the challenges they face.
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Basil Oberholzer

When popular Michael Manley took office as the Prime Minister of Jamaica in 1972, the country suffered from high illiteracy, unemployment and poverty. In the two decades before, the private sector had proven not to be able to guarantee long-term economic and social development. The government was expected to initiate change and steer growth (Davis, 1986, p. 77). Immediately after his election, Manley started the program he had promised: among other measures, a minimum wage was established; his land reform redistributed farmland to small-scale farmers; education at all levels became free; adult education programs reduced illiteracy. Did the story end as a success? To finance the program, the government ran high budget deficits that were mainly financed by foreign capital flows. The government expanded, while support for the private sector was reduced. This prompted capital flight (Shams, 1989, p. 75). Capital leaving the country meant currency devaluation, inflation, and economic contraction. Violence spread over the country. Manley lost his election in 1980.

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Basil Oberholzer

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Energy Transitions in Mediterranean Countries

Consumption, Emissions and Security of Supplies

Silvana Bartoletto

This illuminating book analyses energy transitions, carbon dioxide emissions and the security of energy supply in Mediterranean countries. Unpacking the history of energy transitions, from coal to oil and natural gas, and from non-renewable to renewable energy sources, Silvana Bartoletto offers a comparative approach to the major trends in energy consumption, production, trade and security in Mediterranean countries in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa.
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Silvana Bartoletto

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Silvana Bartoletto

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Philippe Adair and Oksana Nezhyvenko

The chapter addresses the magnitude of prostitution throughout 39 countries, namely the EU-28 plus Norway and 10 non-EU transition countries, as of the year 2010. According to the authors’ literature review concerning both non-coerced and coerced prostitution, empirical studies prove very scarce. Scant data from representative household surveys on male sexual behaviour document the demand side. Data sources are collected on the supply side in order to design three series of estimates using the following measurements: two from HIV prevalence among female sex workers, two from international NGOs and two from victims of sexual exploitation trafficking. Estimates are tested with an OLS model, an ordered probit and country ranking with respect to GDP per capita, legislation, scale, supply-side and demand-side variables, as well as the share of sex work in the female labour force. Estimates are checked against national accounts adjustments for illegal production on the supply side and consumption expenditure on the demand side, using an average price for sexual services and related earnings; neither a profession nor an occupation, prostitution is an economic activity and sex workers belong to informal employment. Four main findings are the assessment for most likely Estimates, the asymmetry of prostitution regimes regarding the magnitude of sex work, the premium in earnings from prostitution and the inclusion of sex workers into informal employment.