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Peter Fredman and Jan Vidar Haukeland

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Nordic Perspectives on Nature-based Tourism

From Place-based Resources to Value-added Experiences

Edited by Peter Fredman and Jan V. Haukeland

Nature-based tourism (NBT) is a sector where entrepreneurial success is highly knowledge driven. This insightful book offers a comprehensive evaluation of NBT in a Nordic context, highlighting how long-established Nordic traditions of outdoor recreation practices can reveal lessons for the field more broadly. Chapters explore Nordic and international perspectives, local communities, market dynamics, firms, creativity, innovations and value-added experience products.
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Edited by Peter Fredman and Jan V. Haukeland

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Maria Gravari-Barbas

Tourism and heritage are two collaborative phenomena. We consider the relationship between heritage and tourism as one that is amphidromic and reciprocal. On the one hand, tourism is certainly attracted by sites, buildings, areas or arts and crafts already recognized as heritage and contributes to their touristification. On the other, by its action, it contributes to redefining the scope and symbolic meaning of the then touristified heritage. In this sense, tourism has been one of the most powerful factors in the social production of heritage. The ambition of this text is to bring new light to the ways tourism and heritage have reciprocally impacted, transformed and transmuted each other. To do so, we will highlight recent changes in both the heritage and tourism paradigms. We will discuss their relationship and, beyond that, their reciprocal coproduction. We finally suggest new paths for future research on the multiple and dynamic interrelations between heritage and tourism.

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Edited by Maria Gravari-Barbas

This timely Research Agenda moves beyond classic approaches that consider the relationship between heritage and tourism either as problematic or as a factor for local development, and instead adopts an understanding of heritage and tourism as two reciprocally supported social phenomena that are co-produced.
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Anne Köchling

Destination marketing organisations (DMOs) seek to provide positive pre-travel online destination experiences (ODEs) to attract tourists. Thereby, DMOs understand official destination websites (ODWs) as central sources of information influencing tourists’ travel decisions. Although experiential marketing theory postulates that customers are reached through sensory, affective, intellectual, behavioural or social experiences, this theory has rarely been applied to analysing tourist experiences on ODWs. Past research and theories remain similar to models from product brands, yet fail to acknowledge the peculiarities of destination experiences. This research explores how users of ODWs experience unfamiliar tourist destinations in the pre-travel phase. To gain a deeper understanding of the nature of ODEs on ODWs, a qualitative multi-method study was conducted involving eye-tracking, retrospective think-aloud protocols, semi-structured interviews and video observations with 15 German millen­nials selected via purposeful sampling. Data was analysed in a qualitative directed content analysis following an abductive approach. Findings expand on previous theory by adding a spatio-temporal experience dimension. In the pre-travel phase, potential tourists explore the spatio-temporal accessibility of expected experiences and the experience density in the destin­ation. Furthermore, this research provides new insights into the different dimensions of ODEs and proposes an advanced conceptual framework.

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Konstantinos Andriotis