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Sara Valaguzza and Eduardo Parisi

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Sara Valaguzza and Eduardo Parisi

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Public Private Partnerships

Governing Common Interests

Sara Valaguzza and Eduardo Parisi

This insightful book critically examines the phenomenon of public private partnerships through a global, theoretical, lens. It considers the reasons for merging private entities and public administration, as well as the processes and consequences of doing so. The benefits for the community as well as the radical changes in the principles and modalities of administrative activity are theorized and discussed.
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Ann O’Connell

This chapter examines the tax treatment of capital gains in Australia. It explains the history of the Australian capital gains tax, its basic design (relationship to income tax, the scope of the tax, the tax treatment of different asset classes, the rates of tax, losses, and so on), how particular problems have been addressed (family homes, avoidance, and so on), and the lessons that might be learned from it. Keywords: capital gains tax; Australia; tax system design

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David G. Duff

This chapter examines the tax treatment of capital gains in Canada. It explains the history of the Canadian capital gains tax, its basic design (relationship to income tax, the scope of the tax, the tax treatment of different asset classes, the rates of tax, losses, and so on), how particular problems have been addressed (family homes, avoidance, and so on), and the lessons that might be learned from it. Keywords: capital gains tax; Canada; tax system design

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Capital Gains Taxation

A Comparative Analysis of Key Issues

Edited by Michael Littlewood and Craig Elliffe

Capital gains taxes pose a host of technical and political design problems and yet, while the literature on the theory of capital gains taxation is substantial, little has been published on how governments have addressed these dilemmas. Written by a team of distinguished international experts, Capital Gains Taxation addresses the gap in the literature; it explains how a number of countries tax capital gains and the successes and pitfalls of these methods.
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Michael Littlewood

This chapter surveys the key issues in the design of capital gains taxes (whether the tax should be a separate tax or part of the income tax; whether it should be based on realisation or accrual; the territorial scope of the tax; the tax consequences of death and emigration; exemptions and preferences; and so on) by reference to the tax systems examined more closely in the other chapters of this book, namely those of Australia, Canada, China, India, the Netherlands, New Zealand, South Africa, the UK and the US. Keywords: taxation; capital gains tax; comparative; tax reform

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Janet E. Milne

While carbon tax measures have not yet met with success at the federal level in the United States, proposals for carbon taxes emerged in a handful of states in 2015 and 2016. The proposals address the shared challenge of climate change, but each has its own unique features and setting. Drawing on proposals in Oregon, Massachusetts, Vermont and Washington as case studies, this chapter explores how state constitutions can affect the design of state-level carbon taxes and their legislative route toward enactment. For example, the Oregon constitution imposes limits on tax rates and use of the revenue when taxing certain fossil fuels. The constitutions in three of the four states require that some types of revenue measures must originate in the legislative House of Representatives, not the Senate, raising the question whether carbon taxes can be designed in a manner that will avoid this procedural constraint. In Washington, the carbon tax proposal came forward as a ballot initiative that went to voters in the general election, following a procedure permitted under the state constitution. These case studies serve as an important reminder of how constitutional provisions that were not created with climate change in mind can influence the design features of subnational carbon taxes and political strategies.

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Claudia Kettner and Daniela Kletzan-Slamanig

In the EU CO2 emissions from industry and energy supply are regulated under the EU Emission Trading Scheme. In contrast, emissions from private households, transport and other small sources are regulated on the Member State level as no comprehensive EU policy strategy is in place for these sectors. Policy instruments specific to the transport sector include fuel taxes, vehicle registration taxes and ownership taxes, which can each contain a specific CO2 component, as well as performance standards and road pricing schemes. This chapter includes an empirical analysis of energy and carbon taxes in the transport sector for the EU Member States focusing on an assessment of fuel tax rates as well as on registration and ownership taxation of passenger cars. It is shown that Member States' tax systems still exhibit pronounced differences with respect to both tax categories. Taxation can make a significant contribution towards achieving emission reductions in the transport sector and should be given more weight by Member States in view of achieving their greenhouse gas reduction targets.

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Yan Xu

This chapter examines the tax treatment of capital gains in China. It explains the history of the Chinese tax treatment of capital gains, the system’s basic design (relationship to income tax, the scope of the tax, the tax treatment of different asset classes, the rates of tax, losses, and so on), how particular problems have been addressed (family homes, avoidance, and so on), and the lessons that might be learned from it. Keywords: capital gains tax; China; tax system design