From an EU perspective, the CRPD is a so-called mixed agreement. This means that it is an international agreement that is concluded both by the EU and its individual Member States. This raises important legal questions, since it implies that for part of the agreement, the EU exercises its competences whereas, for the other part(s), the Member States have retained and exercised competences. The mixed nature of an agreement has several repercussions in relation to the negotiation and ratification of the agreement, as well as for the question of the international responsibility of the EU and the Member States. In addition, the ‘mixity’ raises the question as to which specific EU obligations are incumbent on the Member States in relation to the agreement. The present chapter discusses these issues by focusing specifically on the CRPD as a mixed multilateral agreement.
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Edited by Delia Ferri and Andrea Broderick
Constitutionalism, Rights and Norms
Legality, Rule of Law and Fundamental Rights Reconsidered
Edited by Sergio Carrera, Juan Santos Vara and Tineke Strik
Sergio Carrera, Juan Santos Vara and Tineke Strik
In this introduction to the book, the editors explain the relevance of analysing the constitutional aspects of the external dimension of EU migration and asylum policies. They argue that the labelling of the large arrival of refugees in 2015 as a crisis has severely affected the principles of the rule of law and the interinstitutional balance, which were just established with the Lisbon Treaty in 2009. The authors substantiate that the contributions in the book move beyond the state of the art in the literature by connecting the internal and external dimensions of EU migration and asylum policy and by analysing old and new patterns of external cooperation on migration. Through that lens, they identify a tendency of informalisation of the external cooperation, leading to ‘de-constitutionalisation’ of the EU decision-making in this field. This process raises questions on the EU’s legitimacy of the external cooperation on migration, which are dealt with in the book. The third part of the introductory chapter summarises the contributions in the book.