Browse by title
Edited by Tracey Bretag
Contemporary Challenges and Risks
Edited by Lourdes Gaitán, Yannis Pechtelidis, Catarina Tomás and Natália Fernandes
Does Equal Access Matter?
Edited by Katja Repo, Maarit Alasuutari, Kirsti Karila and Johanna Lammi-Taskula
Edited by Rolf Becker
Susanne Wahler, Sandra Buchholz and Asta Breinholt
The objective of our chapter is to investigate childcare arrangements at preschool age and later child outcomes in Denmark, taking into consideration the role of maternal education and type of care. Denmark represents an interesting case for studying this issue, because it strongly defamiliarizes childcare, placing much weight on a well-developed and much frequented early childhood education and care (ECEC) system (G'slason and Eydal 2011; Del Boca 2015). In concrete terms, we first examine in which types of early childcare Danish children are being cared for at age three. Second, we analyse whether and how maternal education is associated with the type of three-year-old children’s preschool care arrangement. Third, we explore whether maternal education and the type of early childcare at age three are related to children’s later outcomes as measured by their language skills and cognitive skills at age 11 as well as their cognitive skills at age 15. To test our research interests, we used data from the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children (DALSC). In brief our results showed that the great majority of Danish children in our sample attended some form of out-of-home care during the daytime at age three, whereby there are patterns of social inequality in the type of early childcare received by the offspring from different maternal educational backgrounds. It also appeared that maternal education exerts a powerful influence on all of the examined skills. As regards the role of the type of preschool care arrangement at age three for children’s outcomes evaluated at age 11 and age 15, we found only one significant negative association between low-quality versus high-quality publicly provided out-of-home care and 11-year-old children’s language skills.
An International Perspective
Edited by Hans-Peter Blossfeld, Nevena Kulic, Jan Skopek and Moris Triventi
Nevena Kulic, Jan Skopek, Moris Triventi and Hans-Peter Blossfeld
Daniela Del Boca, Daniela Piazzalunga and Chiara Pronzato
Because of the growing participation of mothers in the labour market, a large number of children have been enrolled in childcare. In the last few years, an important literature has analysed the role of childcare in child development. The aim of this chapter is to explore the impact of childcare on child outcomes and its disparities, using the Millennium Cohort Survey (MCS) for the United Kingdom, which provides very detailed information on childcare and child outcomes. We first explore the association between formal childcare and child cognitive outcomes, allowing the effect of formal childcare to be different for children from different family backgrounds. Second, we simulate how an increase in formal childcare use can affect inequalities across children. Our results report that there is a significant association between childcare attendance and several child cognitive outcomes and that an increase in childcare attendance contributes to reduce inequalities across children.
Yuliya Kosyakova and Gordey Yastrebov
This chapter explores changes in the relationship between social inequality and the use of childcare arrangements in Russia between 1994 and 2012. These changes are evaluated against changes in the context surrounding the system of childcare provision throughout the post-Soviet period. In particular, we consider the following changes: increasing household competition for state-subsidized childcare provision and its differentiation, the adoption of neo-familialist social policies in the 2000s, and the growing relevance of informal relations in securing access to formal childcare services. To empirically investigate the changes in the use of childcare arrangements by different types of families we rely on data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (1994–2012). We find that families with higher social standing are more likely to participate in formal public childcare, although inequality in access has slightly decreased in the 2000s. On the other hand, inequality increased with regard to expenditure on external childcare, which suggests that more advantaged families switched to different forms of childcare. This is partly corroborated by the fact that these families use formal public childcare less intensively, possibly by exposing their children to other types of childcare. Social inequalities also exist in informal childcare arrangements; whereas more advantaged families generally make wider use of these arrangements, they are less likely to limit themselves to exclusive parental care, which is more widely spread in the less advantaged families. The patterns of informal childcare remained largely unchanged throughout the period considered.