The chapter presents an overview of bilateral investment treaties in Bosnia Herzegovina, dispute resolution mechanisms prescribed by those treaties, domestic legal framework and remedies, and the analysis and commentary on the investment arbitration cases involving the mentioned state.
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Laura J. Shepherd
This chapter explains the organization of the Handbook into three discrete but overlapping sections: concepts, representations, and contexts. The chapters in the section on concepts elaborate on the tools we use to think with in our work on gender and violence (not only the concepts of gender and violence but related concepts like sex, sexualities, patriarchy, and security). The section on representation includes chapters on the different ways in which gender and violence are constituted in and through various representational practices, including film, policy, and online. Finally, the section on contexts is devoted to the examination of gender and violence in various different empirical settings, including different spheres of activity, from economic to juridical. This chapter provides a brief overview of the work in each section and draws out some thematic connections across the collection.
This chapter examines the principle of intergenerational justice in the context of the Anthropocene with special emphasis on water rights and climate change. It engages with critical questions on interpretation of intergenerational justice in the evolving international environmental law regimes, most importantly in the era of climate change. It engages with different theoretical approaches to justice in the context of environmental crises with a special focus on intergenerational justice and the theory of Anthropocene justice. This chapter argues for a considerable renovation of justice theories to extend the obligations of justice and global social change policy, theory, and movement to all peoples, communities, states, and non-state actors, and proceeds to devise approaches to answer some of the questions.
Edited by Leonidas C. Leonidou, Constantine S. Katsikeas, Saeed Samiee and Constantinos N. Leonidou
This book provides an edited volume of 19 chapters focusing on socially responsible international business which are organized into six parts. Part I consists of two chapters which introduce the subject by critically reviewing the pertinent literature. Chapter 1, ‘Socially responsible international business: review, synthesis, and directions’ was written by Leonidou, Katsikeas, Samiee, and Leonidou and offers an integrative review of the extant studies on socially responsible issues published in the top six international business journals. It provides input about the key contributors and the most influential articles on the subject, as well as evaluating the theoretical underpinnings of these studies, their research methodologies, and the main thematic areas tackled. Sinkovics, Sinkovics, and Archie-Acheampong contributed Chapter 2, ‘An overview of social responsibility dimensions in international business.’ This provides an analysis of 484 studies focusing on key firm-related social responsibility issues within an international context, such as those relating to ethical practices, environmental aspects, human rights, and corruption. The results of this analysis indicate an overemphasis of the literature on positive, rather than negative, issues relating to international business social responsibility. Part II includes four chapters examining the role of the foreign external environment – particularly the institutional – on socially responsible international business. In Chapter 3, ‘Trade-offs and institutional contradictions in formulating responsible international business strategies,’ Iyer sheds light on the various trade-offs encountered by MNEs when performing their CSR strategies across countries, due to institutional differences, which may impose conflicting demands and lead to suboptimal choices. These trade-offs refer to instrumental versus non-market objectives, legal compliance versus broader norms, and voluntary versus obligatory actions relating to the firm’s socially responsible behavior. Chapter 4, ‘Institutional drivers of stakeholder engagement and legitimacy of Chinese MNEs,’ was written by Hofman, Li, Sun, and Sun. Their study focuses on Chinese MNEs when operating in Western countries and uses both stakeholder and institutional theories to examine linkages between home–host country institutional distances, stakeholder engagement, and organizational legitimacy. Shin and Oh contributed Chapter 5, ‘Cross-country comparison of corporate social performance: how do institutions matter?’, in which they examine the effect of formal and informal institutions on environmental, social, and corporate governance performance. Using empirical data from 40 different countries, these authors reveal that while a country’s formal institutions affect environmental performance, informal institutions have a significant impact on social performance. Chapter 6, ‘Re-assessing risk in international markets: a strategic, operational, and sustainability taxonomy,’ was prepared by van Tulder and Roman and enquires into the types of risks encountered by MNEs in international markets. Using a longitudinal study among firms from different countries, they reveal an increasing number of risks, particularly those relating to sustainability, which can also be regarded as opportunities or mitigation strategy.
Jon C. Messenger
This chapter begins by explaining how telework has evolved over its 40 years of existence since its origins in the US state of California in the mid-1970s. This evolution has occurred in three distinct but overlapping stages: first, the home office, then the mobile office, and most recently, the virtual office. The chapter then presents a conceptual framework of telework based on this evolutionary process, which serves as the conceptual ‘backbone’ of the volume and helps us to categorize and compare the many forms of telework that exist. Next, it reviews the international literature regarding the direct and indirect effects of various forms of telework on a range of outcomes, primarily working time (hours and schedules), work–life balance, occupational safety and health, and individual and organizational performance. Following this review, the chapter provides a detailed description of the methodology and the main data sources that will be used in the country-specific analyses presented in the remainder of this volume.
Philippe Cullet and Sujith Koonan
This introduction provides a broad critique of, and gaps in, the mainstream literature on environmental law from a global South perspective. It navigates through the development of environmental law at the international level and at the domestic level, and provides a critique from the point of view of countries and peoples in the global South. It argues that the domination of the global North is a continuing phenomenon although the strategies and tools may have changed over the decades. Indeed, (environmental) law is one of the tools through which domination and exploitation are exercised and legitimised. This introduction also introduces new approaches and bases on which environmental law needs to be rebuilt to serve the interest of the poor and the marginalised of present and future generations in both global South and North.