Introducing self-initiated expatriation in sports is the purpose of this chapter, as it has emerged as a growing phenomenon and subsequently as an important field for research, given its global reach and the amount of human, social and economic capital involved. We aim to demonstrate further evidence of the global presence of self-initiated expatriation in sports, will argue toward a definition of self-initiated expatriates in sports, and follow by introducing different streams of research by different academic disciplines addressing the phenomenon of athletes going global to advance in their careers. The chapter concludes by emphasizing three areas in which expatriation within sports differs significantly from other industries.
Harald Dolles and Birnir Egilsson
Jan Selmer, Maike Andresen and Jean-Luc Cerdin
There seems to be a limitless demand for human talent, making well-educated people transfer between countries. Research on such international talent flows has traditionally featured organizational expatriates (OEs), who have been assigned and supported by their parent organizations in relocating to a foreign host country. But international assignments have become increasingly complex. Recent developments in international assignments have seen individuals who personally take charge of their careers without the direct involvement of any organization. These expatriates, who themselves make the decision to live and work abroad, have been called self-initiated expatriates (SIEs). For those expatriates, the initiative for leaving the home country comes from the individual, and the move is not supported by any current employer. The literature on SIEs is rapidly emerging but demonstrates a considerable extent of conceptual confusion. That is not only unfortunate, but may have a negative impact on the attempts to increase our knowledge about this important and growing group of internationally mobile individuals. Therefore, the purpose of this chapter is to enhance the conceptual coherence of the notion of an SIE by proposing a definition based on a set of conceptual criteria which differentiates SIEs from other types of international movers. Additionally, the chapter will feature recent research on SIEs including their adjustment, performance, personality, demographic characteristics, and reasons to expatriate as well as an agenda of future research on self-initiated expatriates.
Edited by Yvonne McNulty and Jan Selmer
Jan Selmer and Yvonne McNulty
One of the most effective ways for academics to demonstrate a contribution to new knowledge is to publish their research. Publishing, especially in refereed journals, is considered an important – if not essential – ‘ticket to ride’ if you wish to pursue an academic career in the expatriate studies field; in other words – no publishing, no academic career. This chapter is designed to give voice to perspectives about publishing in the field of expatriate studies. We begin by discussing the publish-or-perish dilemma, including the challenges that female academics face in balancing work–family obligations as a result of the pressure to publish high quality scholarship. We then discuss what to publish, including current research themes and where research on expatriates is most needed. This is followed by a discussion of how to publish, from engaging in the peer-review system and selecting co-authors, to the importance of building a publishing pipeline, the practice of writing, and learning to embrace rejection. Next, we discuss where to publish expatriate research, from conference proceedings and new outlets to specialist journals, and the pros and cons of each. We conclude with some personal reflections on the future of academic research on expatriates, and personal recommendations for further reading about getting publishing. We provide an extensive list of references of the best books, articles, chapters, editorials and commentaries in the field of management that can help you to write and to get published in the expatriate studies field. While the chapter has been written with late-stage PhD and early career researchers in mind who may be new to learning the ropes about publishing, others may find the content equally helpful.
Edited by Yvonne McNulty and Jan Selmer
Braam Oberholster and Cheryl Doss
The underlying religious purpose of missionary expatriation influences the definition and forms of missionary expatriation. In combination with environmental trends and paradigm shifts, this mission worldview creates a unique and dynamic context for expatriation researchers. This chapter describes various types of missionary expatriation including traditional (frontier, professionally qualified, spouse, community development and humanitarian, tent maker, and business as mission). Research areas in each type of missionary are briefly discussed. A brief summary of missionary expatriate research literature focuses on member care topics including family adjustments, third-culture kids (TCKs), re-entry and adjustment in host country/ies, care support, burnout, persecution, and motivation. Areas for further research and approaches to missionary expatriate research are identified and discussed as well.
Marian Crowley-Henry and Mary Collins
This chapter describes Millennial expatriates, the youngest expatriate employees in organizations today. Their relevance is pronounced in a recent Deloitte report (2014) which postulates that 75 per cent of the global workforce will be Millennials by 2025. Millennials’ competencies, motivations and expectations differ from previous generations, and this chapter unpacks current research on this group pertaining to international mobility and expatriation. Millennials are eager to learn and have new experiences. They are digital natives, apt at maintaining relationships via social media and VoIP. They have experienced the brunt of the global economic recession, with many Millennials having personally experienced unemployment. For self-initiated Millennial expatriates, an international assignment is both an opportunity to find employment anywhere in the world and a time to garner new experiences. Organizational Millennial expatriates are impressed by the learning and career progressive potential of international assignments, but question their universal relevance given the prevalence of technologies which could substitute international assignments. The objective of this chapter is to familiarize readers with current research on Millennial expatriates and the recognized characteristics of this group. The implications for international human resource management research and practice are outlined. Gaps in the existing research and areas for further research are also shared.
Kelly L. Fisher
Military personnel are organizationally-assigned expatriates who share certain characteristics with traditional, organizationally-assigned private sector expatriates but who are also distinct in a number of important ways. Military expatriates (MEs) may work in extreme contexts that are dangerous, highly dynamic, and that present multiple stressors. While scholarly studies on the ME are limited, it is generally recognized that military expatriates face professional and personal challenges beyond the typical experience for the private-sector expatriate. The ME must not only be proficient within their occupation, but they are also held to a higher standard of conduct as demanded by their extraordinary mandate by their nation to wage violence. Repatriation from a war zone also has specific challenges for both the serving member and their family: current Department of Defense reports show increased rates of substance abuse, suicide, and domestic violence by the ME while deployed and during repatriation. More broadly, in the US, as a civil-military institution, the military is a reflection of the larger society that reflects an increasing demographic diversity of religion and ethnicity, a growing immigrant population, expanding combat roles for women, and changing social mores on sexual and gender orientation. These issues will present a raft of leadership challenges in training and assigning the ME to an overseas post.
Recently there has been an increase in the number of empirical studies that investigate skilled, long-term international mobility, particularly the most common forms – international assignees/assigned expatriates (AEs), self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) and skilled (im)migrants (SMs). Two issues have become apparent: there appear to be problems with construct clarity; and the expatriate type appears to be linked to a specific research design. A sample of 296 empirical studies of AEs, SIEs and SMs published from 2005 to 2014, broadly within the field of human resource management, was coded to examine the research processes adopted: conceptualization, research design, data collection, and data analysis. Comparative analyses revealed problems in construct clarity for the expatriate types, with AEs and SMs less distinct constructs than SIEs. Systematic differences arose in the research paradigms employed: an exploratory inductive paradigm most often informed studies of SMs, while a more positivist paradigm informed studies of AEs. Research is needed to explain why researchers adopt different paradigms and whether their differences affect the results. Improvements are suggested for the research process and also to help end-users to access research results.
It is understood that expatriation is a key element of multinational corporations’ (MNCs) strategies for the use of global talent and improving firm performance. What is less clear is how organizations can meet the growing need for talent to expatriate. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) employees are often in more senior positions within management in proportion to their heterosexual counterparts, and therefore a significant number of the top 10 per cent of talent often targeted for international assignments. This chapter provides a useful insight into the current research on this topic and how practitioners can best support LGBTI employees.