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André C. Presse and Falko Paetzold

Climate protection and economic prosperity often seem to be at opposite ends and discussed as if they are contradictory. This chapter endeavours to ask and answer the question: How can climate change prevention be reached without being harmful to the economy, and perhaps even fostering it? This question is analysed on a normative and conceptual level with direct implications for climate change prevention. The answers developed support the emergence of a global climate policy. This policy reflects the needs of ecological, entrepreneurial and economic as well as social sustainability. In essence, we suggest to auction emission rights globally and redistribute the proceeds per capita globally. The chapter also contains an exploration of how such payout can be administrated. We also propose to shift from emissions to ‘immission’ focus. Relocating the point of control upstream makes a global climate change policy more viable and the respective climate regime easier to enforce.

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Sustainable Growth Through Strategic Innovation

Driving Congruence in Capabilities

Mitsuru Kodama

From detailed reviews of existing dynamic capabilities, this book presents a theoretical model of a strategic innovation system as a corporate system capability to enable a large company to achieve strategic innovation. The book includes in-depth case studies to illustrate the importance of strategic innovation capabilities.
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Van V. Miller and Michael J. Pisani

Governance of corporate sustainability conduct presents a particularly burdensome challenge because it relies on voluntary codes of conduct, minus regulatory mandates. Two major codes are examined and found to be seriously deficient in terms of institutional legitimacy. To deal with this issue, this chapter proposes the use of sustainability science at the corporate level to provide usable knowledge for the governance of corporate sustainability conduct. The proposal, built around five key questions, is then illustrated with two descriptive cases that examine water usage by two large multinational corporations in India and the United States.

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Mitsuru Kodama

Japanese mobile phone manufacturers (NEC, Fujitsu, Panasonic, Sharp, and so on) including NTT DOCOMO and KDDI were slow to respond to the emergence of smartphones. According to existing research, it can be interpreted that the cause of this failure to respond to changes in the environment (markets and technologies) was the strong pull of habits built up over a long time and capabilities grown through experiences in their existing businesses, e.g., competency trap, core rigidities, or the innovators dilemma. However, looking deeply into the organizations in large corporations facing the need to change, it’s clear that negative interactions (capabilities abrasion and friction) between the diverse capabilities within a large corporation are often the cause of the inability to respond with new potential technologies or products. In contrast, SoftBank, a young player in the mobile telephone business and the only Japanese mobile telephone carrier that was not dragged down by negative interactions between its capabilities, was successful in its strategy transformation, as it demonstrated strategic innovation capabilities by executing capabilities congruence through configuration of its dynamic organizational forms both in itself and between it and other companies. This chapter analyses and describes in detail the negative interactions between capabilities that can hinder capabilities congruence (capabilities abrasion and friction), and presents theoretical and practical implications for successful strategic innovation.

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Mitsuru Kodama

First, as implications related to the issues of the first points, the chapter deepens the discussion from the Capabilities Map perspective in contrast to Helfat and Winter (2011), who assert that it is impossible to draw clear boundaries between the two types of capabilities, that of DC and OC. Second, the chapter presents a model of the corporate system for sustainable capabilities congruence and sustainable growth enabled by the demonstration of continuous strategic innovation capabilities. This chapter discusses the “sustainable strategic innovation model” that achieves “external and internal congruence in capabilities” that lead to sustainable strategic innovation. Third, the chapter presents new propositions on the boundaries vision of practitioners, which is also a cognitive capability as intuition to uncover the best intangible assets (and co-specialized assets). The chapter offers new propositions on four specific factors as elements of micro strategy practiced through the demonstration of boundaries vision to achieve optimal asset orchestration processes.

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Mitsuru Kodama

Strategic innovation dynamically brings about strategic positioning through new products, services and business models, and is a dynamic view of strategy that enables a large corporation to maintain its competitiveness and establish sustainable growth. For these reasons, large corporations have to be innovators that can reinforce their existing positions (businesses) through incremental innovation, while at the same time constantly renew or destroy existing business through radical innovation. From detailed reviews of existing capabilities theories (resource-based theory of the firm, dynamic capabilities, and so on), and further theories deeply related to the characteristics of corporate or organizational capabilities and field data on sustainable growth of global corporations, this chapter presents the concept of a “Capabilities Map” derived from existing research into the characteristics of dynamic capabilities responding to environmental conditions such as dynamic temporal shifts and factors of uncertainly.

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Mitsuru Kodama

As a first discussion, this chapter presents the examples of the global semiconductor businesses of Qualcomm and TSMC, and how these large corporations coordinate virtual and vertically integrated value chains through global partnerships with horizontal divisions of tasks in the semiconductor industry not only to drive their innovation activities, but also to offer new value for customer innovation. Skillfully using their semiconductor industry business models, the business strategies at both Qualcomm and TSMC are to configure modular organizations and networked modular organizations as dynamic organizational forms that include their customers and partner corporations. Thus, business model through orchestration of co-specialized assets dispersed both in an out of the company is central to their organizational strategy. This chapter observes and analyses these research questions from perspective of the three factors of capabilities congruence, and describes how Qualcomm and TSMC redefine their corporate boundaries to maximize the success of their open innovation by executing capabilities congruence by configuring dynamic organizational forms to respond to dynamic changes in the environment. Contrasting that, the chapter also presents how standardized and regulated unified development, design and manufacturing brought about excessively inflexible intangible capabilities that hindered capabilities congruence at Japanese semiconductor manufacturers.

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Simon J.D. Schillebeeckx, Mark Workman and Charles Dean

We review how scarcity of natural resources has been framed over time and propose a new frame that ties the availability of source resources to the capacity of sink resources to absorb negative externalities caused by resource extraction and use alongside a techno-economic, market and socio-political dimension. This new frame builds on and further develops the emerging construct of the resource nexus, which focuses on the interdependence between natural resources, ecosystems and social systems. We then focus on the question of what this new frame means for organizations that operate within a resource nexus ‘environment’, and reinterpret the meaning of dynamism, complexity and uncertainty within a natural environment context. We end this chapter with an exploration of what this means for management and suggest that developing anti-fragility, boosting flexibility and supporting openness and collective action will become important strategic considerations for those organizations that seek to thrive in the resource nexus.

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Risk management and adaptation in oil and gas commodity resource markets

Organizational Strategy, Behaviour and Dynamics

Connie Van der Byl and Birgitte Grøgaard

The oil and gas industry is vital in the global economy. It is also a turbulent industry, characterized by market volatility and exogenous shocks. Yet, the oil and gas industry has largely been ignored in the management literature. In this chapter, we highlight some of the risks contributing to industry uncertainty and examine how firms adapt and develop resilience. Using the dynamic capabilities framework, we describe how successful firms develop capabilities for sensing, seizing and reconfiguring to mitigate the risks and capitalize on opportunities.

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Roh Pin Lee, Ronny Reinhardt, Florian Keller, Sebastian Gurtner and Lutz Schiffer

Political and industrial decision makers have to promote technological innovations that pave the way for a low-carbon economy while ensuring the security and competitiveness of raw material supplies. In this complex decision-making environment, it is highly challenging to obtain a holistic and well-grounded overview of the wider institutional environment affecting industrial value chains. This chapter illustrates the managerial relevance and implications of a raw materials transition through a case study of the German chemical industry. Utilizing a cradle-to-gate approach, an integrated techno-economic-environmental evaluation of viable carbon resource alternatives for producing organic chemicals is conducted. The results illustrate the complexity and diversity of issues decision makers face. Additionally, qualitative factors are considered to illustrate motivators and risks that could influence decisions about whether to invest in alternative carbon feedstock. Finally, management theories and practices that could support strategic decision makers in resolving the conflicting demands of the institutional environment are discussed.