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Adriana Campelo

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Eduardo Oliveira and Gregory J. Ashworth

This chapter critically scrutinizes the actual and potential roles of place branding as an instrument for the attainment of strategic spatial planning goals. The chapter also aims to critically discuss the challenges and opportunities of branding regions, a spatial scale seldom explored in academic and grey literatures. By presenting and discussing the challenges and opportunities involved in the process of branding regions, the chapter emphasizes the relevance and effectiveness of regional branding processes in supporting economic and social spatial realignment through the shaping of envisioned and collectively defined futures. Collectively defined futures, as the literature in both fields – place branding and strategic spatial planning – elucidates, requires the engagement and careful consideration of those whom a spatial strategy and ultimately a region brand must serve – the territory and those interacting with it. The involvement of key regional actors as well as community participation in strategic spatial planning and place branding strengthens the place brand independently of its scale of application. The chapter proceeds as follows. Firstly, it clarifies the authors’ understanding of place branding as an instrument for the attainment of strategic spatial planning goals. Secondly, civic and institutional participation is critically appraised in light of the literature of place branding and strategic spatial planning. Thirdly, it discusses the roles of strategic spatial planners in branding regions. Finally, the challenges and opportunities of branding regions are discussed and conclusions regarding such an approach are presented.

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Adriana Campelo

This chapter examines the origins of branding places and the evolution of brands in terms of geographic locations and purposes. Place branding finds roots in country-of-origin theory and tourism destination image. Types of geographic brands include destination branding, nation branding, city branding and regional branding. The geographic brands adopt particular strategies depending upon motivations and goals. In common, national, regional and city brands have the need of collaboration and the challenge of reconciling many stakeholders. Albeit marketing techniques may vary from one type of geographic branding to another, the underlying aim remains to reach some kind of social and economic development. Place branding comes together with other initiatives of public management such as infrastructure, education, safeness, positive business environment, public–private partnerships and local population involvement.

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Adriana Campelo

Our senses connect us to the world around us and mediate the perception of our sense of place. This chapter discusses the importance of our sensory perception for developing place brands and contributes to the area of research methods by showing how sensory knowledge contributes to a multi-dimensional perspective on place branding. Further, it proposes the inclusion of sensory knowledge as a research focus, and sensory capital as a dimension to be developed in researching places and, particularly, in place branding and marketing.

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Søren Askegaard, Dannie Kjeldgaard and Eric Arnould

Place branding entails a reflexivity of the cultural identity of a particular place. Food culture has in many cases proven particularly salient for understanding the “essence” of a place, for in-groups as well as for out-groups. But what happens in an era of global tourism, when the classical food culture does not lend itself so easily to the global palate? How does a new, yet authenticated cuisine form as an expression of what Wilk called global structures of common difference? That is the basic orienting question of this chapter, which represents a study of the formation of emerging cultural expressions in the domain of Greenlandic food culture. We follow the articulation of Greenlandic food culture historically as a trajectory from a colonial and post-colonial expression to a contemporary discourse of gastronomization and embedding in a supra-regional food cultural identity of New Nordic Kitchen. We draw upon a systematic reading of cookbooks from the early 20th century colonial period but with a special focus on the contemporary Greenlandic food cultural scene in order to develop theorization about the formation of the emergence of what we call new authenticated markets. Our study demonstrates that the cultural reflexivity characterized by contemporary glocal consumer culture has market formation consequences and opportunities and we theorize such market formation as ‘programmatic authenticity’ as it entails willed, yet socio-historically situated cultural work in a given market.

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Gary Warnaby and Dominic Medway

This chapter considers the visual and aesthetic impact of vacant retail and commercial space (which may be in various states of disrepair) on perceptions of urban centres, and the consequent implications for place marketing/branding activity. We begin by examining the current fascination with ruination (manifest in the concept of ‘ruin porn’), moving to discuss the various ways in which the urban retail and commercial landscape can be read in visual terms and the manner in which this may be influenced by ruination. We consider how vacant retail and commercial space can be treated by those responsible for the management, marketing and branding of urban places, to mitigate the negative aesthetic effect of empty space, concluding with an identification of future avenues for research.

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Edited by Adriana Campelo

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Maria Lichrou, Maurice Patterson, Lisa O’Malley and Killian O’Leary

This chapter discusses the potential of narratives in facilitating community engagement through a participative place branding process. Narrative is an important mode through which people construct reality and as such narrative is also implicated in the formation of place. As means through which we can make sense of people’s experiences of place and their desires and aspirations, narratives are also relevant to the aims of bottom-up, participative place branding programmes. These approaches are gaining popularity, following criticisms of top-down place branding for failing to resonate with place realities and the disenchantment of different communities with place brands. Finally, addressing methodological considerations of the narrative inquiry approach, the chapter examines ways to access, elicit and make sense of place narratives. The narrative perspective advocated here puts emphasis on branding as a reflexive, dynamic and collaborative process that embraces and works with the inherent tensions and contradictions of places.

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Adriana Campelo

Extant approaches to understanding the role of culture and meaning in place branding often neglect two of its most important components: ethos and habitus. This chapter discusses how these aspects of culture address fundamental elements of experience that are inextricably linked to the process of meaning-making in place branding. A theoretical analysis provides the basis for the conceptualisation of a creational approach to place branding. In particular, the study introduces the concepts of ethos and habitus into place branding literature and integrates these concepts into a creational approach to branding that embraces service-dominant logic and the co-creation paradigm to provide a more holistic and sensitive awareness of how they can be understood and managed.

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Stephen Brown

In a recent study, Jill Avery and colleagues made the case for ‘Brand Biography’, arguing that it represents a new departure for our understanding of branding. This chapter considers that claim in relation to place branding. It finds that Place Brand Biographies predate Avery et al.’s breakthrough and, drawing upon Mark Cousins’ cinematic biography of Belfast, ponders the essentially ontological assumption that places are ‘living things’.