This chapter provides an overview of the conceptual development and measurement of employee engagement, beginning with the originating work of Kahn (1990). Critical reviews and contrasting suggestions for advancing the field are offered. Research findings from empirical studies on employee engagement in hospitality and tourism contexts are synthesized and applied to this debate.
Older workers are an increasingly important source of labour for the hospitality industry. As a result of an ageing population and declining fertility rates in most countries, resulting in a smaller pool of younger people in the labour market, the hospitality industry’s traditional reliance on younger workers needs to be re-evaluated. Attracting, retaining and developing older employees is a key employment issue facing hospitality businesses. In order to address this issue, hospitality employers will need to confront workplace inequality faced by older workers and develop policies and practices to promote the health and wellbeing of their older workers. Negative stereotypical attitudes towards older workers, such as resistance to change, inability to assimilate technological developments and physical and cognitive decline need to be challenged. The chapter examines the barriers facing older employees in the hospitality industry and ways to reduce and, where possible, eliminate these barriers.
Ta-Wei Tang, Ya-Yun Tang, Michael Chih-Hung Wang and Tsai-Chiao Wang
Hotels can attract customers by adopting artistic strategies and leveraging local cultural resources. By using artistic service innovation strategies, hotels can provide unique additional value and an unforgettable sensory experience to their customers. Thus an artistic service innovation strategy provides hotels with a sustained competitive advantage and contributes to their profits. In the hotel industry, effective human resource practices can be considered as the driving force for a hotel’s development of new service. To achieve artistic strategies, hotels should develop a self-aligned system of high-performance human resource practices to enhance employees’ abilities, motivation, and opportunities for providing unique additional value or memorable new service to customers. Based on this human resource-based perspective, this research explores mechanisms through which high-performance human resource practices assist managers in appropriately arranging resources to assist hotels in successfully engaging in artistic service, resulting in better operational performance.
Ronald J. Burke
Organizational learning has been shown to contribute to organizational success. Individuals are the agents of any and all learning that takes place in organizations. Organizational learning will become more important as firms address new challenges. Organizational cultures can facilitate workplace learning, both formal and informal learning, with informal learning being the most common and useful. Results of two studies are reviewed. In the first, workplace learning culture was associated with learning opportunities and a range of important individual work and well-being outcomes. In the second, employees engaging in more voice behaviors in their workplaces also indicated higher levels of important work and well-being outcomes. Learning strategies, facilitators, barriers and learning outcomes are listed and practical implications offered.
Julia Christensen Hughes
We are living in a time of profound disruption, with significant changes occurring in customer expectations and behaviors within the hospitality and tourism businesses. Demand for convenience has risen, alongside increased expectations for sustainable products and services, and authentic and meaningful tourism experiences. These changes have significant implications for the human resource function, with successful businesses embracing technology and automation, as well as a more highly trained and engaged workforce. This chapter reviews the major changes that are occurring, both globally and with the US, and highlights the implications for the HR function. The hospitality industry has always been about people. Effective human resource management practices are more critical now than they have ever been as a source of competitive advantage.
Juan M. Madera, Camille E. Kapoor and Lindsey Lee
Diversity training is the most commonly used method to implement and maintain a culture of diversity and inclusion. Although diversity training approaches can vary widely, they share one common goal, which is to increase knowledge and improve attitudes and skills related to diversity. While research on diversity training in the hospitality and tourism industry is sparse, this body of literature is consistent with the general management literature, demonstrating the positive effects of diversity training. This chapter reviews the reasons why diversity training is important for the hospitality and tourism industry. It also reviews the literature on how diversity training is developed and implemented in organizations. Finally, it offers practical suggestions on how hospitality and tourism organizations should implement diversity training.
Julia Christensen Hughes and William C. Murray
‘Talent management’ has received considerable attention within organizations, and increasingly within academe, since its introduction as a source of competitive advantage twenty years ago. Yet debate continues as to what talent management actually means, including its underlying theory, philosophy, practice and intent. This chapter provides a roadmap to the evolving understandings of talent management, within hospitality and tourism, but also within the management literature more generally. Increasingly, talent management has been acknowledged as a pluralistic concept, one that is context dependent. The hospitality industry presents an ideal opportunity for advancing understanding of talent management, through the exploration of its definition and use within large multinationals, as well as SME’s, from the perspective of multiple stakeholders (front-line employees, managers and society, as well as senior staff), and with respect to changes occurring in the external environment. One central premise of the talent management literature is that valued talent is scarce. Given mounting economic and technological disruptions, it is unclear to what extent this will continue to be the case.
Derya Kara and Muzaffer Uysal
Employees working in the tourism and hospitality sector encounter many difficulties such as long working hours, low pay, and few opportunities for promotion. Furthermore, this sector provides fewer opportunities for female employees. The goal of this chapter is to examine gender differences in burnout perceptions among employees working in five-star hotels. Burnout was measured using three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment) based on the 22-item scale. The study indicated that gender differences in emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment were not different. Gender differences were found on depersonalization, however, with females scoring higher. Practical implications of the findings in terms of reducing burnout levels are offered.
Edited by Ronald J. Burke and Julia C. Hughes
Sara L. Mann and Marie-Hélène Budworth
This chapter presents findings from focus groups and a pilot study examining employment issues with UNITE HERE Local 362, the largest union representing Disney employees. This union represents theme park and hotel employees working within the theme park. The experience of the worker is explored relative to the HR practices employed by Disney. The brand, culture, and other organizational variables are examined as ways of understanding the experience of the worker. Through the focus groups and interviews with theme park employees and union representatives, a number of themes have emerged including working conditions, immigration, diversity, wage equality, emotional labour and careers. While many employees are motivated by the desire to create magical experiences for the customer, the day to day experience of the worker is sometimes discrepant.