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Andrés Hatum

Chapter 2 focuses on the role of talent for organizational creativity. The chapter states three types of talent in creative firms: collaborative talent, entrepreneurial talent, and heterogeneous talent. Cirque du Soleil is analyzed as a case study, emphasizing talent management in their organization.

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Researching IHRD: context, processes and people

Context, Processes and People

Anthony McDonnell

The chapter deliberates on the primary issues and challenges that scholars face when undertaking international human resource development research. In so doing, the chapter articulates the importance of improving the comprehensiveness and sophistication of the research design and data analysis so as to move our understanding of international human resource development forward in a more robust manner. The focus of the chapter is on quantitative methods, which somewhat surprisingly appears to be less common in this area. This may reflect the relatively recent nature of the field that has seen a more exploratory and qualitative approach dominant. In anticipation of researchers engaging in increased theory testing the chapter focuses on three key areas of conducting valid and reliable quantitative studies, namely, the development of equivalent measures for comparative research; the development of appropriate sampling frames; and the administration of surveys.

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Andrés Hatum

Chapter 3 delves into the ways in which the organizational structure can be changed to boost creativity and innovation. Structures, processes, and organizational boundaries are analyzed. Finally, the concept of fluid firms and the open business model and crowdsourcing are explained. The case study on elBulli illustrates the new ways of organizing in a creative organization.

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Andrés Hatum

This book identifies best practices, leadership styles, and organizational structures for the stimulation of organizational creativity, with an aim to help any company – not just companies in creative fields or industries – become an organization in which new ideas flow, new processes are developed, and new products are brought to market. Managers will find case studies describing exceptional organizational creativity and practical takeaways that can be applied in their own firms. Students will find concrete analytical frameworks for thinking about creativity in organizations, and academics will find a different approach to the study of creativity, one that is grounded in practice.
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Thomas Garavan, Alma McCarthy and Ronan Carbery

This chapter charts the landscape of international human resource development (IHRD) and engages with four key strands of IHRD scholarship that point to its possible boundaries. The chapter maps out a number of contextual drivers that are shaping IHRD as both an academic field of research and a set of organisational practices. The chapter proposes an overarching framework to conceptualise the terrain of IHRD. The chapter summarises the focus of the Handbook and summarises the individual chapters and how they are organised. Finally, the chapter proposes a number of priority research areas that will help to give the construct legitimacy as a field of research. The chapter engages in these debates while also acknowledging the emergent, dynamic and constantly evolving nature of the IHRD field.

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IHRD, social capital and networking

Context, Processes and People

Claire Gubbins

The human resource development (HRD) field recognises that the emerging challenges facing HRD require developing the social capital, or the ‘asset value of human relationships’. However, the extent of research on social capital and social networks within the field of HRD and international HRD is limited. To ignite interest and encourage further debate and research within the field of international HRD, this chapter reviews debates around the various conceptualisations of social capital including the structure and content components, levels of analysis issues and debates as to its antecedents and outputs. The chapter outlines the dominant theories in the social capital field including weak tie, structural hole, social resource and social capital theory. It collates available empirical research in the HRD, international HRD and related fields, which focuses on the role of relationships at individual, team and organisational level. Specifically, this chapter looks at research conducted on transnational management and career development, knowledge sharing and learning through a social capital or social network lens. The chapter aims to encourage more interdisciplinary consideration on how the social capital lens can inform and provide a unique and stronger systems perspective in research into international HRD.

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IHRD, offshoring and outsourcing

Context, Processes and People

Valerie Anderson and Vijay Pereira

This chapter examines the development of offshore outsourcing from an international HRD (IHRD) perspective. The chapter assesses the principal factors that influence the choice of offshore or outsourcing strategy in a globalised economy. Offshore outsourcing is an increasingly important feature of organisational strategic decision-thinking although it has been overlooked in the IHRD literature. Drawing on transaction cost economics theory, the resource-based view of the firm and resource dependency theory as well as different approaches to IHRD, a typology of offshore outsourcing contracts or partnerships: ‘tactical’, ‘strategic’ and ‘transformational’ are discussed. Making use of different perspectives to IHRD we identify implications for IHRD research, theory and practice in different offshoring or outsourcing contexts.The chapter concludes with an integrated model of offshore outsourcing and IHRD which provides the basis from which implications and priorities for IHRD research and practice can be identified with the potential to add to knowledge and practice in both HRD and international business and management more generally.

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Yanqing Lai

This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the influential role of national culture on IHRD strategy, policy and practice in different national and cultural contexts. Situated within an analysis of contingency or fit theory, the relevance of national and cross-cultural difference in HRD theory and practice is explained first. Next, the primary studies examining the value dimensions of culture typologies are compared and contrasted. This is followed by a discussion of the influence of cross-cultural differences in defining and conceptualising HRD. Also, how the sociocultural dimensions shape the development and execution of actual HRD strategy, policies and practices in different national and cultural settings is discussed. Finally, implications for both future IHRD research and practices from a cross-cultural perspective are provided.

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Maura Sheehan and Valerie Shanahan

This chapter analyses human capital investment in the context of international human resource development (IHRD) through a multi-level perspective. Specifically the inter-connections between the macro (national and regional) and micro (organisational) levels and IHRD are examined. The chapter provides an overview of national measures of levels and quality of human capital investment. Based on discussion in this chapter, recommendations for the integration of macro and micro-levels of analysis for IHRD and performance research are considered. Finally, conclusions are drawn based on recommendations for future research.

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Jonathan Winterton

This chapter commences by clarifying the concepts of competence and competency and sets out the drivers of the competence movement. Although a complicated and contested concept, competence has come to play a central role in IHRD policy discourse and labour market practice, yet this has only intensified controversies and divisions between the worlds of education and work. Competence-based approaches to IHRD offer scope to establish international and cross-sector comparability and transparency in qualifications in support of labour mobility provided unifying frameworks can transcend country differences in competence models. The chapter discusses the need to bridge the gap between practice and policy in an IHRD context. The institutions, sectoral, national and supra-national, which shape processes of HRD largely determine dominant competence models in particular contexts and there is a need for continued research in this area. Similarly, among the implications for IHRD practice of this analysis of competence are two other priorities for research: how to establish workplace learning that is most conducive to developing competence and targeting competence development that gives most sustainable returns on performance.