The chapter focuses on why customers do and do not switch. Switching is when a customer leaves a service provider for another one. The research presented looks at how customers perceive equity-related aspects, such as economic fairness, on the one hand, and more psychological determinants, such as cognitive and affective aspects, on the other hand. A review of the literature shows why customers sometimes switch and highlights the need to identify and understand how barriers and triggers affect them in this sense. By understanding barriers and triggers, switching processes are either facilitated or stifled and thus affect the likelihood of a customer adopting a new service innovation or not.
Per Kristensson, Herbjørn Nysveen and Helge Thorbjørnsen
Herbjørn Nysveen and Siv E. Rosendahl Skard
Self-service technologies have received a lot of attention in research. The purpose of the chapter is to look into the role of trust and risk in self-service technology research. The chapter starts with clarification of the three central constructs – self-service technologies, trust and risk. This is followed by a description of the procedure used in conducting a brief review of self-service technology literature discussing the role of trust and risk. Based on this procedure, the review identifies 42 articles of interest. The main body of the chapter discusses the characteristics of the literature revealed through the review and proposes suggestions for future research on the role of trust and risk in self-service technology research.
Daniel Nordstad Grönquist
In the chapter the author explains why capabilities connected to futures thinking are increasingly important in trust building and service innovation. Trust is linked to the customer-centric business logic of the future and to the rapid decision-making needed in emerging distributed organizations and networks. Futures thinking is described as a key capability to re-frame to the context of the customer, to create trust by challenging beliefs and managing uncertainty, and to enable decision-making by collectively framing the important issues (threats and opportunities) at hand. The author presents a hypothesis in the form of a model for further research outlining how futures thinking can be used to build trust and increase service innovation effectiveness
Siv E. Rosendahl Skard
The chapter presents the influential model of trust first introduced by Mayer, Davis, and Schoorman in 1995, in an article published in Academy of Management Review, that guides the conceptualization of key constructs regarding trust addressed throughout this book. The chapter distinguishes between three specific trusting beliefs that drive overall trust. These beliefs include the trustor’s perceptions of the trustee’s abilities, integrity, and benevolence. The author presents empirical findings from the literature regarding specific trusting beliefs as well as a discussion about the differences between trust and distrust. A key message is that the psychological mechanisms of trust are global and apply to all kinds of interactions involving humans. Hence, the chapter advocates that trust is key to all aspects and phases of any innovation process.
Birgitte Yttri, Annita Fjuk, Daniel Nordstad Grönquist and Tore Hillestad
The chapter focuses on cultural challenges a company encounters in its efforts to adapt to uncertainties and turbulent environments. The authors argue that companies will be able to achieve competitive advantage by developing organizational cultures with a high capacity for innovation and adaptability, and that future scenarios are practical tools to attain these goals. The arguments are based on scenario development among three Norwegian companies. The common challenge across the three companies is a need for radical innovation in order to adapt to more customer and service orientation, and that this involves significant processes of cultural transformation. The arguments are further exemplified by operationalization of the scenarios into service concepts in one of the case companies.
Customer-centrism is dependent upon employees embracing this as a guiding principle for their work, and committing themselves to the relevant behavior. Such an orientation is contingent upon acceptance and trust in its validity. Transformational leadership is held to be a key component in this context because such leadership is related to the formulation of a compelling vision, and for attracting trusting followers. Those visions build upon intensive business environmental information gathering and processing, enabling leaders to design forward-looking and rewarding visions. In their turn, such visions attract trusting and believing followers internalizing the task of their realization, in this case, customer-centrism.
Ragnhild Halvorsrud and Knut Kvale
Service providers need a structured overview of their service processes to be able to offer satisfying experiences for their customers. The chapter introduces a framework for intuitive modeling of service processes in terms of customer journeys. The authors provide guidelines for Customer Journey Analysis, enabling empirical investigation of service experiences on an individual level. The methods result from research activities in a global telecommunication company. Through an industry case, the authors demonstrate how the proposed framework may serve as a unifying language to approach service quality in a systematic way. They discuss how the Customer Journey Framework can contribute to securing customer trust and confidence in three transformational stages.
The chapter is an introduction to service design. It starts by introducing design thinking and how it recently became adapted by the specifics of service to become service design. It uses theory and practice to describe key terms, competences and approaches to explain what service design is, and how it is a means of designing for trust.
Judith Gloppen, Annita Fjuk and Simon Clatworthy
Service designers use different prototyping techniques to create representations and visualizations of future services. These prototypes can allow whole or parts of services to be experienced and evaluated. The approach and technique used to prototype by designers is influenced by when prototyping occurs in the overall design process and what the purpose is. Important perspectives for prototyping are discussed in the chapter on three levels: stakeholder, activity and prototype. Examples of two projects where service prototyping techniques (desktop walkthrough and service walkthrough) were used are described and discussed in relation to the service prototyping perspectives introduced in the chapter. The examples illustrate how prototypes can be used during service development and more specifically how they embody progression, promote collaboration and build trust across different stakeholder groups.