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Heather Stewart and Rod Gapp

This chapter provides an understanding of the imbedding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) within small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), through continual learning achieved by organizational development processes. Through an interpretivist case study, we investigated the collaborative relationships of 10 Australian organizations. Benefits of these relationships are reflected in improved returns, increased efficiencies, and enhanced stakeholder relationships. From these benefits, improved problem solving, change intervention, and implementation were evidenced, and supported a causal relationship between positive collaboration and mutual learning. The metaphor of a tree, the ‘collaborative ecosystem model’ is used to explain these relationships and the developmental stages explored; from seed to sprouting of the tree is depicted in terms of theory, corresponding action, and behaviours.

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David Littlewood and Diane Holt

The phenomenon of social entrepreneurship has proliferated in recent times. Concurrently, scholarly interest in and work examining social entrepreneurship has also blossomed. Yet there remains much about social entrepreneurship that we still do not know, whilst authors continue to highlight limitations in the state of theory development within the field of social entrepreneurship research. This chapter contributes towards advancing social entrepreneurship scholarship, and addressing these limitations, by exploring the insights, application and value of corporate social responsibility (CSR) theory for social entrepreneurship research. To do this, two key CSR theories: stakeholder theory and Carroll’s CSR pyramid, are analysed. We consider how both theories need to be adapted for a social enterprise context, before presenting a revised stakeholder theory of the social enterprise, and introducing the social enterprise responsibility pyramid. Although discussions in this chapter are principally conceptual, illustrative supporting examples are drawn from case study research with small and medium sized social enterprises in sub-Saharan Africa.

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Burcin Hatipoglu

Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have an important role in achieving sustainability aims throughout the supply chain management. SME characteristics and SME sustainability behaviour are different from those of large organizations, yet sustainability in supply chains is most often studied from the point of view of large organizations. This chapter challenges the current understanding of SME sustainability performance by considering in detail buyer organization demands, together with contextual factors that transform SME resources and capabilities during the phases of sustainability implementation. In order to provide a more comprehensive view of supplier SME sustainability performance, it is useful to utilize complementary theories from different disciplines. This chapter, which is conceptual in nature, contributes to the literature by providing a framework for emerging country contexts. The SME resources and capabilities for sustainability performance framework can be used to build an analytical basis for empirical research to close the gap between current sustainable supply chain management practices and theoretical explanations, with a particular focus on supplier SMEs. Managerial implications of this framework are discussed in the final section of the chapter.

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Diego Vazquez-Brust and Laura J. Spence

Going beyond research on corporate social responsibility and sustainability issues in global supply chains, this chapter takes a practical look at how small business social responsibility and sustainability issues can be meaningfully measured, especially from the perspective of small- and medium-sized enterprises. Taking a particular focus on the environmental aspects of social responsibility and sustainability, the chapter provides guidance in terms of principles of environmental performance measurement and offers a general overview of two outstanding sustainable supply chain assessment tools. Our empirically based illustrative case suggests that metrics for waste management in small British companies are likely to provide better information about quality of waste management and its impact when they are: collected by stream of waste identifying total weight and waste management solution; and analysed using relative, context-based and impact-weighted indicators.

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Edited by Laura J. Spence, Jedrzej G. Frynas, Judy N. Muthuri and Jyoti Navare

The vast majority of businesses globally are small. If business is to be socially responsible, we need to go beyond the westernised concept of 'Corporate Social Responsibility', to develop 'Small Business Social Responsibility'. This agenda-setting Research Handbook on Small Business Social Responsibility includes leading research from around the world, including developed and developing country contexts. It provides a foundation for the further development of small business social responsibility as a scholarly subject and crucially important practice and policy field.
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Sreevas Sahasranamam and Christopher Ball

In recent years, social entrepreneurship has attracted increasing attention thanks to existing successful initiatives, such as the Ashoka Foundation, a global network of social entrepreneurs, and the work of social entrepreneur and Nobel laureate Muhammad Yunus. This has led to a flourishing academic research stream seeking to understand the phenomenon of social enterprise. Recent research in social entrepreneurship has also stressed the need to understand the effects of the institutional context on social enterprise. As an attempt to respond to this need, we examine the cases of two social enterprises, one operating in a developed country context, namely Scotland, and the other in a developing country context, namely India. We draw on the literature on institutional theory to compare the influence of institutions on social entrepreneurship across the two countries. We employ Whitley’s (1999) National Business System (NBS) perspective, which argues that the institutional context has an important role in guiding economic behaviour and identifies the principal environmental dimensions that would be expected to impact on the behaviour of entrepreneurs. It is proposed that comparing a developed and developing country context will provide valuable insights into the wider triggers of social entrepreneurship that may differ between the two settings. The potential value of social entrepreneurship to policy makers as a response to intractable social and environmental problems that plague both the developed and developing world cannot be overstated. In comparing the two institutional contexts, mutual lessons emerge as to how to design policies to unleash the power of social entrepreneurship to tackle these issues.

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Introduction

Global Perspectives

Laura J. Spence, Jedrzej George Frynas, Judy N. Muthuri and Jyoti Navare

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Angie Ngoc Tran and Søren Jeppesen

This chapter draws on a study investigating what corporate social responsibility (CSR) means to Vietnam’s small- and medium-size enterprise (SME) owner/managers and workers, using Scott’s three-pillar (norms, regulation, cognition) institutional framework. The findings are based on factory visits and interviews with 40 managers/owners and 218 workers conducted in two sectors—textile/garment/footwear (TGF) and food/beverage processing (FBP)—around Ho Chi Minh City in 2011. Scott’s framework is useful in highlighting similarities and differences between these two sectors. We found more stringent state regulation and greater industry pressure with regard to quality and safety of products than to labour standards in both sectors. Most factories in the TGF sector assembled products for global supply chains and were under pressure by industry norms, while most companies in the FBP sector produced for the domestic market and were subjected to greater state regulation. Moreover, contributing critical perspectives to Scott’s framework, we found an overlap between the normative and the regulatory, and between the cognitive and the industry norms, which reveals how institutional and cultural pressures contribute to different outcomes in the TGF and FBP sectors. We also contribute to Scott’s framework by analysing the unequal power relations in global supply chains and explain how different levels of linkage to global systems explain the different outcomes in FBP and TGF sectors. FBP workers in domestic-serving factories negotiated for job stability, whereas workers in the export-oriented TGF factories bargained for flexible work schedules in exchange for wages below the living wage as well as overtime work.

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Fergus Lyon and Abdullah Al Faruq

Social enterprises have a primary social or environmental objective and reach this through trading activity. The majority are small enterprises themselves, and hence provide insights into the nature of small business social responsibility. They balance the logic of commerce and the logic of social value and, hence, can be referred to as hybrid organisations. However, little is known about these organisations in a developing country context and this chapter explores the different models found in Bangladesh and Ghana. After discussing the historical context of social enterprise in each country, the chapter sets out the different forms of enterprise in the two countries. These include non-governmental organisations (NGOs) with trading activity, NGOs with subsidiaries, social businesses, private enterprises and cooperatives. The chapter concludes by presenting a framework for examining different forms of social enterprise according to the balance of their social and commercial aims and according to the balance of hierarchical and democratic governance.

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Foreword

Global Perspectives

Edited by Laura J. Spence, Jedrzej G. Frynas, Judy N. Muthuri and Jyoti Navare