This chapter lays out how the social functions of emotion, or deviations from it, can be co-opted to serve as a means of social control. The term ‘emotion’ is defined consistent with the key construct emotion regulation and the notion of emancipation as featured in critical theory. The literature on the functions of emotion is also discussed, as well as how these functions manifest themselves across levels of analysis. These steps permit introducing the reader to two pathways of social control. This chapter features a range of vignettes to contextualize how each emotion in question can be used to control behaviour in organizations. Finally, the chapter joins these insights with the literature on critical theory to maintain that the social functions of emotion constitute a sophisticated system of repression, the seeing through of which can potentially spark within repressed workers a desire to emancipate themselves from these conditions.
This chapter outlines the theoretical and empirical findings associated with Gross’s widely used process model of emotion regulation. Building upon this, the chapter proceeds to explore specific emotion regulation strategies in order to show how they differentially apply to, and impact on, the two pathways to social control introduced in Chapter 2. Through detailed description, the chapter lays out what the current appraisal might look like for each emotion of interest in this book (shame, guilt, happiness, anger), which, in turn, gives rise to adverse psychological, physiological and social consequences. This is followed by suggestions as to how these emotions might be regulated differently (compared to the status quo) to alleviate these adverse consequences. However, consistent with the clarifications offered in Chapter 1, the author refrains from predicting what the ‘new’ consequences for workers might be – other than suggesting a lower likelihood of adverse consequences materializing if workers adopted these suggestions.
This chapter offers a comprehensive synthesis of the preceding chapters. It does so by mapping out the entire process of how each pathway to social control, with its unique characteristics, relates to specific emotions. Through a different approach to emotion regulation, the author suggests that this can eventually raise the possibility of a critical mass emerging for what is described as micro-emancipation of workers. However, the author emphasizes that it is the sense-making processes of workers that will eventually influence whether an effect will occur and, more importantly, how the effect manifests itself in the phenomenological world of workers.
Kathryn M. Page, Nicola J. Reavley, Allison J. Milner, Jenny Weston, Christine E. Thomson and Anthony D. LaMontagne
Mental health problems represent a growing work-related issue, with far-reaching impacts on workers, their families, employers and communities. Some professions, including veterinarians and veterinary nurses, are at a particular high risk of workplace mental health problems. This chapter adapts generic strategies for responding to workplace mental health problems to the specific needs of the veterinary sector as part of a broader study to show how guidelines can be tailored to suit the needs of specific occupational groups. Thirty veterinary professionals were consulted to discuss factors contributing to suicide and mental health problems amongst veterinary professions, factors that promote mental health, prevention strategies, and the short-, medium- and long-term actions that organizations could implement to address issues in different veterinary work settings. This information may be used to support veterinary workplaces to respond to work-related mental health problems that have been found to be highly prevalent in the veterinary context.
Valerie J. Morganson and Holly C. Atkinson
This chapter focuses on how work and personal life roles (e.g., family) can impact one another in positive ways. Since the concept of work–family enrichment was introduced and defined, research in the area has grown rapidly. We review literature concerning work–family enrichment antecedents (i.e., skills and perspectives, psychological and physical resources, flexibility and material resources). We also review outcomes of enrichment, including those that are work-related (e.g., job satisfaction, turnover), non-work-related (e.g., family satisfaction), health-related (e.g., burnout, mental health), and the impact of enrichment on other individuals (i.e., crossover). In addition to descriptive research, some studies have begun to explore individual and organizational interventions to increase enrichment, such as coping and leadership, respectively. The review concludes with directions for future research.
Work engagement has spawned a great deal of interest since its initial conceptualization. To date, many researchers have connected levels of work engagement to a wide range of employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance outcomes. However, there are relatively fewer studies on work engagement and employee well-being. This chapter presents a review of existing research on work engagement variables in relation to several dimensions of employee well-being. This is supported by a brief overview of work engagement variables and their measurement. In particular, work engagement and its known correlates are considered within the job demands-resources model of organizational behavior and employee well-being. Finally, implications of the research are discussed in terms of limitations, future research, and actions that organizations could take to improve levels of both work engagement and employee well-being. One issue for future consideration is whether work engagement, itself, should be considered as a form of employee well-being.
Helen Lingard and Michelle Turner
This chapter considers the occupational health of workers in the Australian construction industry, with a particular focus on psychosocial hazards and mental health. Both the antecedents and outcomes of poor mental health are explored throughout the chapter, which draws on research conducted by the authors. Case studies are used to illustrate some of the key factors impacting on the health of workers. Construction work is largely project based with poor job security, and long and irregular working hours are the norm. The importance of recovery is highlighted for maintaining good health in this high-demands industry. Construction workers experience work–family conflict and burnout that lead to poor health outcomes for the worker. These workers also engage in physically demanding work and the incidences of physical injury and work disability are high. The interaction between physical and psychosocial risk factors of workers is considered. Workplace health promotion programmes implemented by organizations focus on changing individual workers’ lifestyle behaviours. Those programmes need to be carefully designed to address the fundamental causes of poor health in the construction industry.
Ronald J. Burke
This chapter sets the stage for the rest of the collection. Adults spend over one-third of their waking hours at work. Work can enhance or diminish well-being. Well-being is an umbrella concept including happiness, satisfaction, positive affect and flourishing among others. Stress at work is a major factor influencing well-being. Workplace stress exerts a high financial cost to societies, thus well-being is important for both individuals and organizations. Sources of stress that have received research attention include long work hours, autocratic leadership, bias and discrimination, sexual harassment, low levels of job security, and unsafe work environments. The goal for organizations then is to create more psychologically healthy and positive workplaces. Factors associated with such workplaces include types of leadership (transformational, servant), levels of job security, reasonable workloads, opportunities to increase person–job fit, training and development opportunities, high levels of job civility and fairness, investments in developing human capital in all employees, and fun at work. Organizational case studies of psychologically healthy workplaces are offered.