Mental health problems represent a growing work-related issue, with far-reaching impacts on workers, their families, employers and communities. Some professions, including veterinarians and veterinary nurses, are at a particular high risk of workplace mental health problems. This chapter adapts generic strategies for responding to workplace mental health problems to the specific needs of the veterinary sector as part of a broader study to show how guidelines can be tailored to suit the needs of specific occupational groups. Thirty veterinary professionals were consulted to discuss factors contributing to suicide and mental health problems amongst veterinary professions, factors that promote mental health, prevention strategies, and the short-, medium- and long-term actions that organizations could implement to address issues in different veterinary work settings. This information may be used to support veterinary workplaces to respond to work-related mental health problems that have been found to be highly prevalent in the veterinary context.
Kathryn M. Page, Nicola J. Reavley, Allison J. Milner, Jenny Weston, Christine E. Thomson and Anthony D. LaMontagne
Valerie J. Morganson and Holly C. Atkinson
This chapter focuses on how work and personal life roles (e.g., family) can impact one another in positive ways. Since the concept of work–family enrichment was introduced and defined, research in the area has grown rapidly. We review literature concerning work–family enrichment antecedents (i.e., skills and perspectives, psychological and physical resources, flexibility and material resources). We also review outcomes of enrichment, including those that are work-related (e.g., job satisfaction, turnover), non-work-related (e.g., family satisfaction), health-related (e.g., burnout, mental health), and the impact of enrichment on other individuals (i.e., crossover). In addition to descriptive research, some studies have begun to explore individual and organizational interventions to increase enrichment, such as coping and leadership, respectively. The review concludes with directions for future research.
Work engagement has spawned a great deal of interest since its initial conceptualization. To date, many researchers have connected levels of work engagement to a wide range of employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance outcomes. However, there are relatively fewer studies on work engagement and employee well-being. This chapter presents a review of existing research on work engagement variables in relation to several dimensions of employee well-being. This is supported by a brief overview of work engagement variables and their measurement. In particular, work engagement and its known correlates are considered within the job demands-resources model of organizational behavior and employee well-being. Finally, implications of the research are discussed in terms of limitations, future research, and actions that organizations could take to improve levels of both work engagement and employee well-being. One issue for future consideration is whether work engagement, itself, should be considered as a form of employee well-being.
Helen Lingard and Michelle Turner
This chapter considers the occupational health of workers in the Australian construction industry, with a particular focus on psychosocial hazards and mental health. Both the antecedents and outcomes of poor mental health are explored throughout the chapter, which draws on research conducted by the authors. Case studies are used to illustrate some of the key factors impacting on the health of workers. Construction work is largely project based with poor job security, and long and irregular working hours are the norm. The importance of recovery is highlighted for maintaining good health in this high-demands industry. Construction workers experience work–family conflict and burnout that lead to poor health outcomes for the worker. These workers also engage in physically demanding work and the incidences of physical injury and work disability are high. The interaction between physical and psychosocial risk factors of workers is considered. Workplace health promotion programmes implemented by organizations focus on changing individual workers’ lifestyle behaviours. Those programmes need to be carefully designed to address the fundamental causes of poor health in the construction industry.
Ronald J. Burke
This chapter sets the stage for the rest of the collection. Adults spend over one-third of their waking hours at work. Work can enhance or diminish well-being. Well-being is an umbrella concept including happiness, satisfaction, positive affect and flourishing among others. Stress at work is a major factor influencing well-being. Workplace stress exerts a high financial cost to societies, thus well-being is important for both individuals and organizations. Sources of stress that have received research attention include long work hours, autocratic leadership, bias and discrimination, sexual harassment, low levels of job security, and unsafe work environments. The goal for organizations then is to create more psychologically healthy and positive workplaces. Factors associated with such workplaces include types of leadership (transformational, servant), levels of job security, reasonable workloads, opportunities to increase person–job fit, training and development opportunities, high levels of job civility and fairness, investments in developing human capital in all employees, and fun at work. Organizational case studies of psychologically healthy workplaces are offered.
Jinky Leilanie Del Prado-Lu
The chapter discusses the precarious and adverse working conditions of farmers and small-scale miners in today’s world of work. This is the vulnerable working population in many parts of the developing world that calls for broader institutional arrangement on protecting their health and safety, and to ensure the very basic decency of work. It is argued in the chapter that the agriculture and mining sectors are among the biggest revenue-generating economic activities in the world and in the Philippines, yet, it is ironic that their work rights and rights for healthful and safe work are not protected. Hence, there is an urgent need to focus on the farmers’ and miners’ occupational health and safety, and that their work in agriculture or mining adds value to their lives and well-being, and does not, on the contrary, end their life as a consequence of a serious work-related accident, or chronic occupational illness from handling dangerous chemicals.
Ronald J. Burke
Police work has been described as one of the most dangerous occupations. Many police officers perform their jobs admirably, sometimes putting their lives at risk to save others. Other police officers exhibit destructive personal and job behaviours. Public trust in policing is critical for police work to be successful. This chapter examines risks to police officers, the police culture, police cynicism, and police behaviours and health. Stressors in policing include job demands, role demands, interpersonal demands and physical demands. Officers report greater stressors from organizational demands (from inside their organization-autocratic leadership than from operational demands (what they do everyday –interacting with citizens). New demands include increasing police force diversity, increasing community diversity, heightened scrutiny, and the need to reduce costs of policing. Consequences of stress in policing include cynicism, burnout, post-traumatic stress disorder, spouse abuse, and alcohol abuse. Initiatives found helpful in reducing sources of police stress include leadership training, education in improving coping behaviours, resilience training, and peer counselling.
In this chapter, the contribution that psychological factors make to occupational accidents is considered, with a focus on safety climate. First, research evidence linking a negative safety climate to unsafe working environments is critically reviewed, and second, the dual mechanisms by which safety climate influences safety outcomes, namely health impairment and motivational pathways, are discussed. The importance of leadership, both constructive and destructive, is highlighted: constructive leadership emerges as critical to the creation and maintenance of a positive safety climate, which protects organizations against accidents and safety incidents. Future research and practical implications are discussed.
Edited by Ronald J. Burke and Kathryn M. Page
David W. Ballard and Matthew J. Grawitch
At its core, a psychologically healthy workplace, as introduced and promoted by the American Psychological Association (APA), recognizes the symbiotic relationship between employee well-being and organizational effectiveness. Rather than an emphasis on maximizing either outcome, the psychologically healthy workplace approach recognizes the need to optimize the levels of well-being and effectiveness within the organization. This chapter explains the key components of the psychologically healthy workplace approach utilized by APA. It then details some of the findings from national surveys of the general US population as they relate to the psychologically healthy workplace perspective and employee well-being. It concludes by offering guidance on the development of a psychologically healthy workplace using lessons learned from recipients of APA’s national Psychologically Healthy Workplace Awards.