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Whistleblowers as information sources

Convenience in White-Collar Crime

Petter Gottschalk

Whistleblowers attempt to disclose information about what they perceive as illegal, immoral, or illegitimate practices. Fraud investigators reconstruct the past after suspicions of misconduct and financial crime. Whistleblowers are an important source of information for many fraud investigators. In this chapter, characteristics of whistleblowers and their trustworthiness as information sources and the quality of pieces of information are discussed.

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Jane Claydon

This chapter focuses on the benefits of using a mixed methods approach when researching Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The author’s research investigates a sample of debtors’ and debt collectors’ perceptions of responsibility and blame for consumer debt by using a number of research methods: qualitative in-depth interviews, focus groups, and quantitative online surveys. Using mixed methods for the research approach was advantageous for a number of reasons: utilizing a number of methods ensures that the researcher can enjoy the qualities of several different research methods; further, using different methods enables the researcher to recognize and assess the validity and reliability of a single research method when comparing it against another. The author will outline to the reader the strengths, shortcomings, representativeness and validity of the aforementioned research methods, along with the sampling strategy used by the author as a CSR researcher. This chapter is aimed at early career researchers in the field of CSR to provide them with an overview of using a mixed methods approach in CSR research and, specifically, a more detailed insight into the methods of interviewing, focus groups and surveys, using the author’s research as a case study.

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Linne Marie Lauesen

Storytelling is a method for improved writing styles often used in fiction, drama, movies, and disciplines that work with a storyline. Academic writing has often been claiming that it differs from stories by its factual content. However, to convince its highly skilled readers, a proper storyline is also needed for the communicating part of writing scientific papers, books, or presentations. Thus, storytelling is as vital for scientific writing as well. This chapter shows the mechanisms of the Narrative Arc with examples from the literature in corporate social responsibility in order to make readers reflect upon their communicative performance. It aims to provide a tool to improve the writing skills of academic writers regardless of research methods.

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Testing convenience theory

Convenience in White-Collar Crime

Petter Gottschalk

This chapter tests convenience theory by studies of autobiographies. We were able to find a variety of statements produced by offenders that illustrate application of neutralization techniques in the behavioral dimension of convenience theory. Convenience theory is also tested in student elicitations, where students’ average responses indicate that issues in convenience theory are more important to determine white-collar crime than issues in society. The five most important issues are all convenience items.

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Student survey on convenience theory

Convenience in White-Collar Crime

Petter Gottschalk

To study convenience theory empirically, this chapter presents a student elicitation on white-collar crime. Student elicitation is derived from expert elicitation, where experts are asked to say something about the unknown. Expert elicitation seeks to make explicit and utilizable knowledge and attitudes in the heads of experts. Expert elicitation seeks to make explicit and utilizable the unpublished knowledge and wisdom in the heads of experts, based on their accumulated experience as well as their interpretation and reflection in a given context. Elicitation is defined as collecting information from people as part of human intelligence. An elicitation technique or elicitation procedure is applied to collect and gather information from people. Expert elicitation is defined as the synthesis of opinions of experts on a subject where there is uncertainty due to insufficient data.

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Duygu Türker

As a viable multidisciplinary method, social network analysis (SNA) has been frequently used to reveal the nature and structure of relationships among different actors in a network or to analyse the network itself for a long time. This network perspective together with considering the relational aspects of phenomena can be particularly useful to conceptualize and analyse the social, economic, or political structures of social units. Therefore, this social network perspective can be also used in the analysis of the relational context of social responsibility and ethical issues. The purpose of the current study is to provide a viable understanding of the application of social network analysis (SNA) for corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature. In doing so, this study first provides a conceptual framework of SNA and then briefly discusses its paradigmatic stance and methodological approach based on the relevant literature. In the second section, it is analysed whether and how SNA can address our CSR related research problems over three selected research mainstreams: stakeholder management, collaborative social responsibility projects, and ethical conduct among employees.

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Habib Zaman Khan and Md. Rashidozzaman Khan

A thorough knowledge in terms of understanding sampling and sampling techniques has been of paramount importance for CSR researchers before they aim to conduct field research using quantitative study. The current chapter discusses sampling and sampling techniques that are essential for designing a quantitative research method. After studying the chapter, readers are expected to understand the necessity of sampling, different types of sampling techniques, merits and demerits of different sampling methods such as probability and non-probability sampling, situations where one sampling method is preferable than another in the case of a CSR research project, the recent trends of sampling techniques and how to select a suitable sampling design in the CSR research.

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Sample of US investigation reports

Convenience in White-Collar Crime

Petter Gottschalk

Many internal investigation reports are kept secret. Reports are the property of clients who often do not want to damage their reputation or leak business secrets. In 2015, it was possible to identify and obtain a total of 13 publicly available investigation reports. These 13 investigations are presented in this chapter.

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Miriam Green

There has been much controversy as to the advantages and legitimacy both of quantitative and qualitative research methods in the management area and more widely in the social sciences. There have also been differences as to whether one can combine quantitative with qualitative methods, or whether the two approaches are ‘incommensurable’. It is proposed in this chapter to put forward definitions of each research method; outline their main features; discuss their applications with particular reference to the management area; examine their advantages and disadvantages; set out the critiques regarding each method and whether they are ‘commensurable’ with each other or not. These issues are the subject of this chapter, which involves a discussion as to the preponderance of quantitative research methods in mainstream management scholarship (although there is also a significant number of management scholars using qualitative or mixed research methods). Claims for the legitimacy of quantitative over qualitative approaches because of the scientific methods used in the former are examined in the light of what has been written by prominent historians of science such as Kuhn (1970) and Feyerabend (1993), and social theorists, for example Bourdieu (1990). Ultimately an argument is made for commensurability, complementarity and inclusiveness wherever possible.

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Sonali Bhattacharya, Madhvi Sethi, Abhishek Behl and V.G. Venkatesh

Regression analysis is one of the most frequently used tools in market research. In its simplest form, regression analysis allows researchers to analyse relationships between one independent and one dependent variable. In corporate social responsibility domain applications, the dependent variable is usually the outcome we care about (e.g., beneficiaries), while the independent variables are the instruments we have to achieve those outcomes with (e.g., economic and legal responsibility). Knowing about the fact that the relative strength of effects is useful for companies as it may help answer questions such as if the behaviour depends more strongly on types of factors such as societal or environmental factors. Most importantly, regression analysis will help to compare the effects of variables measured on different scales. Regression analysis can also help make predictions which are precise and can be used to study the dynamics of a company in future. A corporate social responsibility (CSR) team can thus strategize plans and allocate funds for proper and effective outputs. Similarly, different CSR research works used regression analysis for the various objectives. In the current CSR research domain, it is important to understand the fundamentals of regression analysis and various usages of the techniques. The chapter will also discuss various advanced techniques and their applications in the CSR domain. It would lead the researchers to diligently choose those relevant variant techniques in the research.