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What does being LGBT mean in the workplace? A comparison of LGBT equality in Turkey and the UK

  • Research Handbooks in Business and Management series

Emir Ozeren and Erhan Aydin

Sexual orientation (gay, lesbian and bisexual) and gender identity (transgender/transsexual) issues in the employment sphere have been among the most under-researched phenomena in the field of diversity management. The unique work experiences and perceived discrimination of sexual minorities, including (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) individuals, have so far received relatively scant attention within the context of the UK, and particularly so in Turkey. Therefore, this chapter aims at examining equality on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity in the workplace with a comparative approach, by shedding some light on the current situation of LGBT individuals in both contexts. By adopting an institutional perspective, we demonstrate the complexity, contradictions and tensions arising from the contextual nature of each country, where social, political and legal actors/institutions play a crucial role in LGBT equality and (in)visibility at work.
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Tribal diversity and collective productivity: the intervening mechanisms of social inclusion, human resource development and tribal identity

  • Research Handbooks in Business and Management series

David B. Zoogah

How does tribal diversity relate to collective productivity? Using multiple data sources and demography theory, I examine the process by which tribal diversity relates to collective productivity at the national level. The results show social inclusion policies and building human resources intervene in the relationship between tribal diversity and collective productivity. I also find that tribal identity moderates the relationships between tribal diversity and (1) social inclusion and (2) human resources development. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed to enhance tribal diversity management particularly in the context of the study: Africa.
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Social dialogue: an “essential dimension” of diversity management in continental Europe?

  • Research Handbooks in Business and Management series

Emma Stringfellow

Kirton and Greene (2010) argue that an emphasis on a voluntary, unilateral managerial approach is an “essential dimension” of the (Anglo-Saxon) diversity management (DM) discourse. Diversity management has therefore been criticised as representing a “soft option” for employers, emphasising a top-down, management-led approach and giving managers the power to define problematic areas (Liff 1997; Kirton and Greene 2010). It is questionable, however, whether this applies in continental Europe, where issues of equality are usually regulated through social dialogue or collective bargaining. This chapter compares the unilateral managerial versus social dialogue dimension of diversity management in Sweden, France and Germany. The chapter examines the main actors driving diversity management in each country; what their motivations were for doing so; and how this impacted on the extent of a social dialogue approach. It then looks at the extent and quality of social dialogue on diversity management and what form it has taken – ranging from co-determination at one end of the spectrum (where unions take the leading role in designing and implementing DM policies); through genuinely negotiated agreements on issues directly or indirectly related to promoting diversity; to joint initiatives and projects; to the façade of collective bargaining in which unions are invited to sign or reject agreements without any real negotiation. The chapter then looks at how social dialogue might have shaped diversity management, and vice versa, in each country.
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Research Handbook of International and Comparative Perspectives on Diversity Management

  • Research Handbooks in Business and Management series

Edited by Alain Klarsfeld, Eddy S. Ng, Lize A.E. Booysen, Liza Castro Christiansen and Bård Kuvaas

This Research Handbook offers, for the first time, a comparative approach to current diversity management concerns facing nations. Spanning 19 countries and across Africa, it covers age, gender, ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation, national origin and the intersection of various dimensions of diversity. The multicultural and multi-country teams of contributors, leading scholars in their own countries, examine how the various actors react, adopt and manage the different dimensions of diversity, from a multitude of approaches, from national to sectoral and from tribes to trade unions, but always with a comparative, multi-country perspective.
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Managing diversity in the South Pacific

  • Research Handbooks in Business and Management series

Katherine Ravenswood, Stéphane Le Queux, Erica French, Glenda Strachan and John Burgess

This chapter examines the approaches to diversity management in the South Pacific, specifically New Zealand, Australia and two French Pacific Territories – Polynesia and New Caledonia. The focus of the analysis is on gender and racial equality. The chapter will examine the legislative requirements promoting diversity and equality; organizational programs to promote diversity and equality; and the equity and diversity challenges confronting each of the countries/territories. In terms of equity and diversity there are three common features across the region. All have indigenous populations with unique cultures and histories that have in general been marginalized in terms of access to jobs and wealth. All have a colonial legacy as European settlement was imposed across the region in the 18th and 19th centuries and, to different degrees, indigenous communities and lifestyles have been irrevocably altered. Finally, immigration from Europe, and more recently from Asia, has been an ongoing feature of the region. Diversity management and equal employment opportunities (EEO) issues are important across the region with major inequalities by gender, race, age and ethnicity in terms of employment access and labour market outcomes.
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An intersectional approach to diversity management in the United States and France

  • Research Handbooks in Business and Management series

Tarani Merriweather Woodson and Ariane Ollier-Malaterre

The US and France share common democratic values and ideals for diversity, yet differ greatly in the ways in which they frame diversity, which makes for an interesting comparison to outline the interactions between the framing of diversity at the country level, the operational paradigms to manage diversity, and intersectionality research. Our objectives are to enrich intersectionality research by calling attention to its embeddedness within specific historical, legal, and political contexts, and to foster a critical examination of diversity management paradigms in both countries. As intersectionality research is still very much embedded in the American context, it is important to first examine its origins and then explore how it can be applied to the French context. Thus while the US has come to acknowledge the reality of intersectionality with regard to race and gender, France is still grappling with the notions of race and ethnicity, let alone their application to an accepted gender dichotomy. Although the context and policies differ, the practice of exclusion based on ethnicity and gender is still sustained in both countries. By applying intersectionality to a comparative study between nations, we are not assuming one context or approach as more advanced than the other; rather, we highlight the need for exchange among the different approaches. We hope that situating diversity management paradigms and intersectionality research in their national contexts can bring forth a fresh perspective on how to address and research diversity in both countries.
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International and comparative perspectives on diversity management: an overview

  • Research Handbooks in Business and Management series

Alain Klarsfeld, Eddy S. Ng, Lize A.E. Booysen, Liza Castro Christiansen and Bård Kuvaas

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Diversity management in Denmark and France: a comparative approach

  • Research Handbooks in Business and Management series

Sabine Bacouël-Jentjens and Liza Castro Christiansen

Adopting a two-level framework of diversity management analysis, we show how the concept of diversity management and its corresponding policies and practices differ in diverse country-specific environments, namely Denmark and France. We refer in this exploratory study in a Danish and a French company to two interrelated levels: macro-social and meso-organizational. By examining the field of diversity management as a multilayered phenomenon, we offer empirical insights into how distinct diversity discourses can develop in different national settings, and in which ways macro-level discourses may influence meso-level perceptions of diversity and practices of diversity management. We show that diversity discourses from the macro level help explain whether companies adopt a rights-based approach of equal opportunities to diversity management aimed at reducing discrimination and group-based disadvantages or a mainstream approach with emphasis on the “business case,” focusing on performance-related outcomes of diversity.
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A comparison of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer rights and politics in South Africa and the USA

  • Research Handbooks in Business and Management series

Lize A.E. Booysen and Heather Wishik

This chapter compares lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) rights, politics and workplace inclusion in South Africa (SA) and the USA. We explore the histories, backgrounds and legal landscapes of LGBTQ rights, and highlight relevant trends and current issues pertaining to LGBTQ issues in the two countries. We utilize Reynaud’s theory of social regulation (1979) to analyze social regulation involved in LGBTQ equal opportunities and inclusion, in historical, current coalitions and political debates in the two countries. We conclude that SA has a higher level of national control regulation than the USA, with more laws of national scope in place creating a broad pattern of progressive legislation towards LGBTQ equality. Regarding the autonomous societal rules activated spontaneously by actors, we conclude that the USA has taken the lead over SA in the relatively widespread acceptance of LGBTQ people in American society and in broad voluntary employer action. We found there is no straight line of progress in advancing LGBTQ rights, in either the USA or SA. We recommend that SA should build stronger cooperative ties beyond Africa to increase gay and lesbian social acceptance and to prevent anti-gay and lesbian violence. In the USA more formal regulation at the federal level is needed, where federal law addresses full LGBTQ rights and where federal court decisions affirm rights to constitutional equal protection in all arenas of life.
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A comparative study of five countries with critical mass and its ambiguous impact on HRM policies

  • Research Handbooks in Business and Management series

Terry A. Nelson, Kori Callison and Allison Freswick

The insufficient representation of women on boards continues to be a much-discussed topic globally. Many countries are taking note of this deficiency and are implementing laws and corporate governance to increase women’s presence on boards. Norway was the first country to champion this cause, and put legislation in place in 2003 to politically pressure companies to achieve 40 percent gender equality in boardrooms. Other countries have followed suit, utilizing an array of approaches to achieve diversity objectives. Research suggests that obtaining a critical mass of females (three or more) on corporate boards may have beneficial outcomes, such as encouraging strategy that focuses on organizational practices and policies. These policies may include human resource policies that support working women and mothers. We take a comparative look at whether a mandate of boardroom gender equality in five European countries (France, the Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium, and Italy) suggests a link between critical mass and decision-making as it relates to HRM policies. Although the potential of critical mass to help employees with work–life concerns seems promising, the possible limitations and ramifications of obtaining a critical mass of women are also discussed.