In this chapter, Jonas Van Hove, Iris Vanaelst and Mike Wright explore the differences across countries and regions in accelerator support programs in order to improve understanding of the continuously evolving accelerator landscape and concomitant activities by complementary actors within an ecosystem community. They emphasize the role of institutional intermediaries in shaping the ecosystem through the preservation of the aligned interests between policymakers and practitioners. Reviewing the evolution of the landscape of policy support for accelerators across national and regional levels, with particular emphasis on the UK context, they outline the challenges accelerators face and which policymakers need to take into account. They conclude with policy implications and recommendations focusing on how the ecosystem community can meet such challenges in order to spur ecosystem development and fuel the next generation of start-ups.
Jonas Van Hove, Iris Vanaelst and Mike Wright
Patrizia Casadei and David Gilbert
In recent years, fashion design has been treated as a key element of the cultural and creative industries (CCIs), and the idea of the ‘fashion city’ has emerged as a potential strategy for the revamping of cities. This chapter argues that there is not a singular model of the ‘fashion city’, and that treating fashion simply as a CCI underplays its complexity. It proposes an analytical framework for thinking about fashion’s relationship with cities. The chapter highlights the different trajectories of ‘fashion’s world cities’, specifically Paris, New York, Milan and London, and identifies the existence of two broad tendencies within strategies to develop ‘second-tier cities’ of fashion like Auckland, Toronto and Antwerp. The suggested framework highlights the different positions that fashion plays in urban economies, associated with manufacturing, design and symbolic production and the various forms of creativity associated with different forms of fashion city.
Ronit Yitshaki and Israel Drori
In this chapter, Ronit Yitshaki and Israel Drori focus on the important aspect of the accelerators’ design structure and operation that concerns mentoring. By mentoring they refer to the process of learning and coaching provided by the accelerators to their participating start-ups by groups of experts with relevant knowledge and experience in founding and managing new ventures. Using detailed interview and observational data from Israel, they show that the mentoring process provides a bridge between the accelerator, the start-up and the ecosystem through the mentor’s internal (within the start-up) and external (within the ecosystem) position. They suggest that mentorship is a complex process composed of both altruistic and interest-based motivations and processes, represented along a continuum starting as part of the accelerator’s educational program, and either ending with the end of the program or leading to a transformation to a partnership. Accelerators play an important role in recognizing mentors who are relevant to the ecosystem while providing mentors with opportunities to invest and learn about the ecosystem, enabling them to conduct informal due diligence prior to investing as business angels. They identify four distinct aspects that characterize the mentoring process: (1) setting up strategy and priorities, (2) revealing marketing opportunities, (3) structuring organizational processes and (4) expanding ventures’ social capital.
Michael Leatherbee and Juanita Gonzalez-Uribe
This chapter by Michael Leatherbee and Juanita Gonzalez-Uribe addresses issues relating to the selection of entrepreneurs and their ventures for entry into accelerators. Commonly, accelerators select start-ups among a broader group of applicants. The assumption is that through the selection process, accelerators are able to discriminate between high- and low-potential start-ups. Thus, the expectation is that accelerators are an effective medium for capturing the upside potential of the select few start-ups that promise to deliver the highest value in the future. That upside potential may be materialized through attractive equity investments or increased socio-economic development, depending on the mission of the accelerator. Typically, the selection process relies on a set of objective criteria predetermined by the accelerator, which are applied by one or more entrepreneurship experts who act as judges or evaluators of the applicant pool. First the authors describe the different selection stages and methods typically managed by business accelerators. They then go on to explore the multiple important issues that must be taken into account when designing and managing selection processes. Comprehending these issues may help to understand the challenges and limitations of current selection methods, and to avoid potential pitfalls and unintended consequences.
Luciana Lazzeretti, Francesco Capone and Niccolò Innocenti
This chapter has a twofold objective. First, it aims to contribute to addressing the fragmentation of the literature on the creative economy, and second, to lay the foundation for an economics of creative industries. Following a bibliometric approach, the authors analyse all publications collected from the ISI Web of Science database, starting from 1998 and ending in 2016. Through the analysis of nearly 1600 publications, they study the evolution of creative economy research (CER). They apply a co-citation analysis developed using social network analysis, thereby exploring the ‘founders’ and ‘disseminators’ of cultural and creative industries (CCIs). Results underline that CCIs are not only the major topic in CER research, but this trend has become stronger in the last few years. In addition, evidence of this work strongly confirms the relevance of CCIs in the contemporary economy. This importance can only be expected to grow in the future. This last result supports the hypothesis concerning the foundation of an economics of creative industries.
Iris Vanaelst, Jonas Van Hove and Mike Wright
In this chapter, Iris Vanaelst, Jonas Van Hove and Mike Wright, after a brief review of US policy towards accelerators, focus on how EU policy engages with different stakeholders in order to support accelerator activity within the EU area. The EU interactions with accelerators are threefold: (1) the EU supports the setup of accelerator networks to create momentum for accelerators to meet and exchange experiences, expertise and knowledge (e.g. Accelerator Assembly); (2) the EU supports and funds accelerator programs (e.g. EU-XCEL-European Virtual Accelerator, IoT Accelerator Programme, Copernicus Accelerator Programme); and (3) accelerators serve as intermediaries between the EU and start-ups looking for funding (e.g. EuropeanPioneers) in addition to the small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) funding instruments of the EU (e.g. SME Instrument). Interesting examples of each of these initiatives are discussed in more detail.
Ruth Rentschler, Kim Lehman and Ian Fillis
This chapter examines a private entrepreneur and his art museum as a single deep, rich case study. Occasionally, new art museums emerge in small regional cities that contribute to economic and social development. Using the entrepreneurship theory of effectuation, with biographical research methods, interviews, observations and content analysis, the authors provide a lens on how one man’s vision has changed opportunities in a rust-bucket city and state, boosting jobs and tourism and changing the urban environment. They analyse how the complex and paradoxical attractions of a distinctive museum succeeded, which have been little investigated from the perspective of its broader role in stimulating a small regional city’s rise as an emerging creative city. Theoretically, the chapter makes a contribution by applying entrepreneurship theory through an entrepreneurial marketing and effectuation lens, demonstrating how unpredictable products in a new venture process under conditions of uncertainty provided a unique difference and unexpected success in the arts and cultural sector.
Patrick Cohendet and Laurent Simon
In this chapter, the authors analyse Ubisoft’s Montreal ecosystem. They show how the Ubisoft studio is the central actor that orchestrated a unique ecosystem in videogames through the building of a rich ‘middleground’, conceived as a set of intermediary platforms and devices that connect and integrate formal organisations and informal collectives. They argue that the success of the development of the Ubisoft studio and of the dynamism of the city in the domain of videogames is due to the progressive building by the main parties in this field of such a middleground that provides the essential qualities of an ecosystem: generative dynamism, resilience and power of attraction.
Marilena Vecco and Andrej Srakar
This chapter models ‘entrepreneurial regimes’ for cultural entrepreneurship using symbolic data. From the Amadeus database the authors select a sample of firms active in the cultural and creative sectors in Europe to verify to what extent entrepreneurial activities in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries differ from the other old European countries. Analysing several entrepreneurial (firm-level), institutional and macroeconomic distributional variables, and symbolic data clustering algorithms, they transform the dataset into a set of symbolic variables. They extract four main temporally robust clusters and provide their interpretations. Cultural and creative entrepreneurship in CEE countries perform differently compared to other European countries and those countries can be separated into two clusters, based largely on the level of development. Furthermore, Estonia and Slovenia emerge as clear outliers being closer to Western European countries. The authors conclude by reflecting on the findings for future research in the area.
Jessica D. Giusti and Fernando G. Alberti
In this chapter the authors explore the correlation between knowledge brokerage and creativity in a collaborative online innovation network of fashion makers, named Openwear. The fashion industry has recently benefited from co-design and co-creation practices that are accelerated by online platforms of collaboration. The authors selected two knowledge brokerage characteristics: rotating leadership that measures the degree to which, over time, the members in a team vary in how ‘central’ they are to the team’s communications; and rotating contribution that measures the degree to which, over time, actors in a team vary in how much they transmit knowledge versus receive knowledge. Their findings indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between rotating leadership and creativity as well as between rotating contribution and creativity, confirming the general view that creative work requires innovation and breaking known patterns of thought and behaviour through a continuous rotation in brokerage roles and contributions.