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Ulrike Guelich and Siri Roland Xavier

This study examines the inherent challenges that women entrepreneurs face within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. We provide cross-country comparisons as well as comparisons with global benchmarks. Heterogeneous contexts result in the need for focused solutions, which provide more effective policy-making strategies to support the different ecosystems for economic growth of women entrepreneurs. In addition, we strive to put forward recommendations based on global practices or benchmarks but modified to reflect ASEAN’s regional values, stemming from family, religion and embedded traditions.

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Colette Henry, Barbara Orser, Susan Coleman, Lene Foss and Friederike Welter

Public policy is a key element within the entrepreneurial ecosystem in that policy has the potential to shape venture creation behavior and entrepreneurial outcomes. In response to studies documenting a gender gap in entrepreneurial activity, government attention to women’s entrepreneurship has increased in the past two decades. Nevertheless, there are few cross-cultural studies to inform policy development. This 13-nation study draws on gender and institutional theory to report on the status of female-focused SME/entrepreneurship policies and to ask: How — and to what extent — do women’s entrepreneurship policies differ among countries? A common methodological approach is used to identify gaps in the policy-practice nexus, highlighting countries where policy is weak but practice is strong and vice versa. Recommendations for future research are advanced.

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Daniela Giménez, Patricia Gabaldón and Cathrine Seierstad

Drawing on a gender-aware framework and institutional theory, this chapter explores the formal institutional factors (economic, anti-discrimination legislation and family policies) which affect women entrepreneurs in Latin America and the Caribbean countries. Using the 2014 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and Women, Business, and the Law data from IFC-World Bank from 14 Latin American countries, the results indicate that economic and institutional factors affect women’s entrepreneurial activity in the region. While economic and institutional factors affect men and women entrepreneurs, the nature of these structures creates some gender-based variations. Interestingly, they influence to a great extent the nature and magnitude of women’s entrepreneurial activity. Our results provide a deeper understanding of the role of formal institutional factors on women entrepreneurs in a developing region, such as Latin America and the Caribbean.

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Ahmed Alshumaimri, Taylor Aldridge and David B. Audretsch

This paper explains why and how a technology transfer revolution is taking place in Saudi Arabia to meet the mandate that Saudi Arabia become globally competitive as a knowledge-based innovative economy. The paper explains and identifies the new policies and institutions that have been introduced and developed to facilitate technology transfer and knowledge spillovers from the universities for commercialization and ultimately innovative activity and economic growth.

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David B. Audretsch, Erik E. Lehmann and Susanne Warning

This paper examines the impact of locational choice as a firm srategy to access knowledge spillovers from universities. Based on a large dataset of publicly listed, high-technolgy startup firms in Germany, we test the proposition that proximity to the university is shaped by different spillover mechanisms—research and human capital—and by different types of knowledge spillovers—natural scienes and social sciences.

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Bronwyn H. Hall, Albert N. Link and John T. Scott

Universities are a key institution in the U.S. innovation system, and an important aspect of their involvment is the role they play in public-private partnerships. This note offers insights into the performance of industry-university research partnerships, using a survey of precommercial research projects funded by the Advanced Technology Program.

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David B. Audretsch, Dennis P. Leyden and Albert N. Link

Partnerships between universities and industrial firms can play a key role in enhancing competitiveness because they provide a conduit for for the spillover of knowledge from the academic organization where knowledge is created to the firm when it is transformed into innovative activity. We set forth in this paper a model of industry/university participation, and we test the model empirically, using research project data on entrepreneurial firms that were funded through the US Deartment of Energy's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program.

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Edited by David B. Audretsch and Albert N. Link

Entrepreneurial ecosystems have emerged as one of the most dynamic forces shaping the economic performance of individuals, companies and regions. This book brings together some of the leading scholarship and research identifying and analyzing the role of universities in entrepreneurial ecosystems. Particular emphasis is given on the role of innovation, startups, SMEs and technology transfer both in shaping the entrepreneurial ecosystem, as well as the resulting impact on firm performance and regional economic performance.
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Atsede T. Hailemariam, Brigitte Kroon and Marc van Veldhoven

Women entrepreneurs in developing countries such as Ethiopia are often stereotyped as necessity-based entrepreneurs operating in the informal sector of the economy. However, there are women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia who form and develop ventures by their own choice in the formal sector of the economy. Moreover, motivation literature suggests that motivation can develop and change overtime. In this study, self-determination theory (SDT) is used as a guiding framework for improved understanding of motivation to form and develop a venture, with a special interest in how motivation changes in relation to the entrepreneurial ecosystem. Interviews with 18 women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia operating businesses in the formal sector identified autonomously motivated and controlled-motivated women entrepreneurs proposed by SDT. The findings also highlight how the type of motivation changes over time. According to SDT, autonomous motivation and motivational change overtime happen when all basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness are satisfied. The link of satisfaction of these psychological needs with entrepreneurial ecosystem providing clues for policy making and women entrepreneurship development interventions are discussed.

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Albert N. Link and John T. Scott

University research parks are important as a mechanism for the transfer of academics research findings, as a source of knowledge spillovers, and as a catalyst for national and regional economic growth. We develop a model to describe the growth, or productivity, of research parks, and we test this model using the newly constructed National Science Foundation database on university research parks.