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Women empowerment through Government Loaned Entrepreneurship Teams (GLETs) in Kenya

Mary Wanjiru Kinoti, Moses Kibe Kihiko and Thomas M. Cooney

While female entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial teams are now commonly studied, little work has been undertaken in women’s entrepreneurial teams in developing countries. This study analyses the impact of the Women Enterprise Fund, which was established by the Kenyan government to address the issue of poverty and unemployment amongst the country’s female population. To ensure that the government funds maximized the number of women that participated in the initiative, a loan was offered to teams (or groups) of at least ten women and therefore the programme became known as the Government Loaned Entrepreneurship Teams (GLETs) initiative. The research found that illiteracy among many GLETs resulted in difficulties with the loan application process, the repayment of the loan through the bank, and with proper record keeping. The research also found that the government should finance women’s group assets rather than giving money to provide incentives, and that they should reduce the tax and interest rate for women and encourage greater levels of export activity. The GLETs also require business mentors who can work closely with them to implement what they have learned in training. The chapter additionally offers some thoughts on how the findings from this research can provide insights into women’s entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial teams internationally.
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Why are some individuals willing to pursue opportunities and others aren’t? The role of individual values

Francisco Liñán and Agnieszka Kurczewska

In this chapter the authors argue that personal values influence motivation and intention to exploit business ideas. The aim is to investigate which values direct individuals willing to start up their ventures out of an opportunity, compared to those who would start their venture out of necessity. To address this aim, the authors combine the literature on entrepreneurial intentions and opportunity-driven entrepreneurship with psychological knowledge on individual values. By applying Schwartz’s theory of personal values on a sample of 2974 adults from Spain, the authors examine how values organized along two bipolar dimensions – openness versus conservation and self-enhancement versus self-transcendence – influence the perceived likelihood of an individual entering entrepreneurship ‘to take advantage of an opportunity’ or ‘out of necessity’. The study indicates that openness to change and self-enhancement encourage opportunity-driven entrepreneurship, while conservation and self-transcendence stimulate necessity-based entrepreneurship. The study also confirms that the start-up intention is mostly connected with exploiting a potential opportunity. Entrepreneurial intention mediates the relationship from the motivational antecedents to the opportunity motives. The study’s contribution is a new, value-based insight into the sources of two classes of entrepreneurship. By identifying the value priorities held by individuals who exploit opportunities, the chapter advances the understanding of value-laden entrepreneurial intentions leading to entrepreneurial behaviours.
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Which deep-level diversity compositions of new venture teams lead to success or failure?

Stephanie Schoss, René Mauer and Malte Brettel

There is a growing body of research that focuses on dispositional personality–related characteristics of founding team members as leading indicators of new venture success. For empirical analysis in this research, 16 personality-related characteristics were selected relevant to entrepreneurship literature and practice, and their importance examined with regard to the composition of entrepreneurial teams. The research setting consisted of a start-up simulation comprising 1200 students with backgrounds in engineering and business who were randomly assigned to teams of five. The method of cluster analysis served to develop a better understanding of which personality characteristics are most important to team success and how the traits cluster together to form specific team types. Besides well-studied characteristics like the need for achievement, less prominent variables like empathy and passion also appear among the personality traits that are most significant for entrepreneurial success. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that balanced individuals who simultaneously show high levels of multiple traits appear more often in unsuccessful teams, while individuals with fewer but more strongly developed traits are to be found in successful teams. Additionally, passion and need for achievement seem to be closely clustered traits, but are less likely to be present in individuals who rate high on empathy and conflict management skills. The findings of this study provide valuable insights for researchers and actionable recommendations for practitioners.
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When the going gets tough: exploring processes of trust building and repair in regulatory relations

Frédérique Six and Hans Van Ees

Trust plays a role in all relations within regulatory regimes, as Six and Verhoest (this volume) show in their literature review. They conclude that, among others, the dynamics of processes for trust building and repair are under studied. In this chapter we begin to address this gap. In a double case study, we reconstruct and analyse the interaction process between a public regulator (water board in charge of licensing and enforcement for water management) and public regulatee (local authority developing new housing district). Even though (dis)trust was not often explicitly mentioned, processes of trust building and repair provide a fruitful conceptual lens through which we can understand and explain what happens. Our micro-level study shows how trust is built and what happens after trouble occurs and conflict erupts. We tentatively formulate propositions on processes of trust building and repair at individual and organizational level.
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Urban legends or sage guidance: a review of common advice about entrepreneurial teams

Phillip H. Kim and Howard E. Aldrich

Many people claim to be experts when it comes to launching new businesses. Aspiring entrepreneurs can easily read how-to articles, listen to inspiring TED talks, and follow online the journeys of other founders. A quick search on Google for ‘founding team advice’ yields over 11 million hits. But how much of this advice is actually valid and fruitful for entrepreneurs? Do these insights hold up when evaluated against findings from academic research? This chapter reviews several common themes concerning strategies for constructing founding teams, promoted by practitioners and consultants in the popular press, and analyses their veracity and feasibility using published findings from academic research. Thereafter, detailed discussions will demonstrate that following the proposed advice is extremely difficult to follow (given the constraints faced by founding teams), while additionally highlighting that some advice is evidence-based and some stems from practitioner insights that appear worthy of further investigation. The chapter concludes by outlining some research pathways.
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Understanding the knowledge–opportunities–entrepreneurship mechanism

Spyros J. Vliamos

The development of an entrepreneurial mindset is a challenge and a goal which requires an in-depth investigation of the learning processes in the meta-level, because the key factors are related to meta-cognitive processes and procedures on motivation and behavior. The purpose of this chapter is towards understanding the knowledge–opportunities–entrepreneurship mechanism and therefore the role of opportunities in the entrepreneurial process. The chapter aims to consider that the concepts developed in this literature can be treated equally well both as topics on entrepreneurial behavior and as a mental exercise in cognitive science, pedagogy and philosophy of the brain. The author accepts that cognitive mechanisms reinforce individuals’ existing knowledge base, making it one of the most important elements contributing to opportunity identification. So, through a process of logical inference, the chapter addresses some questions related to the opportunity–entrepreneurship action relationship.
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Trust in regulatory regimes: scoping the field

Frédérique Six and Koen Verhoest

This edited volume is the first endeavour to systematically investigate the role of trust in the different relations within regulatory regimes. Trust as a multifaceted concept is contested within public administration and political science in general and especially within the relation between regulator and regulated party. The aim of this book is to scope the field and to set the agenda for further research. In this introductory chapter we map the different relations within regulatory regimes and review empirical research into the role of trust within the different relations. Our review reveals several themes that we address in the different empirical chapters and in the research agenda formulated in the concluding chapter.
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Trust in Regulatory Regimes

Edited by Frédérique Six and Koen Verhoest

Within political and administrative sciences generally, trust as a concept is contested, especially in the field of regulatory governance. This groundbreaking book is the first to systematically explore the role and dynamics of trust within regulatory regimes.
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Trust and cooperation over the public–private divide: an empirical study on trust evolving in co-regulation

Haiko Van der Voort

Public regulators increasingly cooperate with self-regulating industries regarding their oversight activities such as standard setting, information gathering, and sanctioning. The effectiveness of this “co-regulation” has been discussed extensively in the past decade, albeit usually with the government’s perspective in mind. This contribution focuses on the emergence and maintenance of co-regulation as an interaction process in which public regulators and self-regulating industry are involved. This process provides explanations for the effectiveness of co-regulation. This chapter takes “trust” and “cooperation” as the core variables. They are perceived as mutually dependent. The interplay between trust and cooperation is coined “trust-in-action”. It is assumed to be embedded in institutional arrangements, but may produce these arrangements as well. Two case studies show the complex interaction processes among public regulators, self-regulating industries, and intermediaries. The cases involve the regulatory regime on the quality of Dutch eggs and the regime concerning the reliability of Dutch temporary employment agencies. Both case studies start with public and private trust in co-regulation, expressed in institutional arrangements. However, in one of the cases this trust-on-paper did not find fertile ground on an operational level, while in the other it did. The cases confirm that on an operational level, trust is both an enabler and a result of cooperation. However, this mutual reinforcement process of trust and cooperation needs to be supported by institutional arrangements made on a political level. These institutional arrangements can be artifacts of distrust rather than trust.
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Te Ohu Umanga Māori: temporality and intent in the Māori entrepreneurial team

Mānuka Hēnare, Billie Lythberg, Amber Nicholson and Christine Woods

Māori are the Indigenous people of Aotearoa-New Zealand. Māori entrepreneurial teams harmonise the collective intent and complementary attributes of individual members, and balance heritage with innovation. They recognize spiritual and human ancestors, and descendants not yet born, as part of the entrepreneurial team and shareholders in their intent and outcomes. This inclusive humanistic-spiritual approach has ramifications for the Māori entrepreneurial team’s observation of history and its teachings, and how it conceives of and works towards the future. This chapter focuses on two clusters of values – temporality and intent – to demonstrate that the relationship between entrepreneurship and cultural values determines the composition of, and guides toward success, the Māori entrepreneurial team. More generally, the chapter offers a lens into Indigenous entrepreneurship, team formation, aspirations and turnover.