Mental health problems represent a growing work-related issue, with far-reaching impacts on workers, their families, employers and communities. Some professions, including veterinarians and veterinary nurses, are at a particular high risk of workplace mental health problems. This chapter adapts generic strategies for responding to workplace mental health problems to the specific needs of the veterinary sector as part of a broader study to show how guidelines can be tailored to suit the needs of specific occupational groups. Thirty veterinary professionals were consulted to discuss factors contributing to suicide and mental health problems amongst veterinary professions, factors that promote mental health, prevention strategies, and the short-, medium- and long-term actions that organizations could implement to address issues in different veterinary work settings. This information may be used to support veterinary workplaces to respond to work-related mental health problems that have been found to be highly prevalent in the veterinary context.
Kathryn M. Page, Nicola J. Reavley, Allison J. Milner, Jenny Weston, Christine E. Thomson and Anthony D. LaMontagne
Valerie J. Morganson and Holly C. Atkinson
This chapter focuses on how work and personal life roles (e.g., family) can impact one another in positive ways. Since the concept of work–family enrichment was introduced and defined, research in the area has grown rapidly. We review literature concerning work–family enrichment antecedents (i.e., skills and perspectives, psychological and physical resources, flexibility and material resources). We also review outcomes of enrichment, including those that are work-related (e.g., job satisfaction, turnover), non-work-related (e.g., family satisfaction), health-related (e.g., burnout, mental health), and the impact of enrichment on other individuals (i.e., crossover). In addition to descriptive research, some studies have begun to explore individual and organizational interventions to increase enrichment, such as coping and leadership, respectively. The review concludes with directions for future research.
Work engagement has spawned a great deal of interest since its initial conceptualization. To date, many researchers have connected levels of work engagement to a wide range of employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance outcomes. However, there are relatively fewer studies on work engagement and employee well-being. This chapter presents a review of existing research on work engagement variables in relation to several dimensions of employee well-being. This is supported by a brief overview of work engagement variables and their measurement. In particular, work engagement and its known correlates are considered within the job demands-resources model of organizational behavior and employee well-being. Finally, implications of the research are discussed in terms of limitations, future research, and actions that organizations could take to improve levels of both work engagement and employee well-being. One issue for future consideration is whether work engagement, itself, should be considered as a form of employee well-being.
Helen Lingard and Michelle Turner
This chapter considers the occupational health of workers in the Australian construction industry, with a particular focus on psychosocial hazards and mental health. Both the antecedents and outcomes of poor mental health are explored throughout the chapter, which draws on research conducted by the authors. Case studies are used to illustrate some of the key factors impacting on the health of workers. Construction work is largely project based with poor job security, and long and irregular working hours are the norm. The importance of recovery is highlighted for maintaining good health in this high-demands industry. Construction workers experience work–family conflict and burnout that lead to poor health outcomes for the worker. These workers also engage in physically demanding work and the incidences of physical injury and work disability are high. The interaction between physical and psychosocial risk factors of workers is considered. Workplace health promotion programmes implemented by organizations focus on changing individual workers’ lifestyle behaviours. Those programmes need to be carefully designed to address the fundamental causes of poor health in the construction industry.
Ronald J. Burke
This chapter sets the stage for the rest of the collection. Adults spend over one-third of their waking hours at work. Work can enhance or diminish well-being. Well-being is an umbrella concept including happiness, satisfaction, positive affect and flourishing among others. Stress at work is a major factor influencing well-being. Workplace stress exerts a high financial cost to societies, thus well-being is important for both individuals and organizations. Sources of stress that have received research attention include long work hours, autocratic leadership, bias and discrimination, sexual harassment, low levels of job security, and unsafe work environments. The goal for organizations then is to create more psychologically healthy and positive workplaces. Factors associated with such workplaces include types of leadership (transformational, servant), levels of job security, reasonable workloads, opportunities to increase person–job fit, training and development opportunities, high levels of job civility and fairness, investments in developing human capital in all employees, and fun at work. Organizational case studies of psychologically healthy workplaces are offered.
Jinky Leilanie Del Prado-Lu
The chapter discusses the precarious and adverse working conditions of farmers and small-scale miners in today’s world of work. This is the vulnerable working population in many parts of the developing world that calls for broader institutional arrangement on protecting their health and safety, and to ensure the very basic decency of work. It is argued in the chapter that the agriculture and mining sectors are among the biggest revenue-generating economic activities in the world and in the Philippines, yet, it is ironic that their work rights and rights for healthful and safe work are not protected. Hence, there is an urgent need to focus on the farmers’ and miners’ occupational health and safety, and that their work in agriculture or mining adds value to their lives and well-being, and does not, on the contrary, end their life as a consequence of a serious work-related accident, or chronic occupational illness from handling dangerous chemicals.
This chapter describes how methods and theories developing within the field of future-oriented technology analysis can be implemented in technology- dependent innovation and research practices. It focuses on and defines one such method – technology-oriented scenario analysis, and departs from the premise that technology and information technologies have become structural drivers of change, and the awareness that any medium- or long-term innovation plan cannot exclude reflections about probable and possible future technological developments. The chapter presents combined theoretical and methodological models that explain the theoretical premises of contemporary methods based on future foresight and future forecast (ranging from traditional expert knowledge and speculative foresight to contemporary “algorithmic predictive computing” and artificial intelligence-based analysis of big data). It argues that technology forecast and foresight methods should be understood as new, necessary, and dynamic processes of organizational intelligence, designed to activate key and dependent actors to participate in a constant innovation process inspired by, and aware of, these possible future technological scenarios. The chapter details the steps involved in technology-oriented scenario analysis, and describes how this method can be implemented and used by businesses or other institutional entities to prepare, or contribute towards shaping, these possible future scenarios.
This chapter illustrates the application of Future Workshops to engage users and employees in services innovation. The overall aim is to develop innovation ideas that can be useful and beneficial to service organizations, in collaboration, however, between the organizations and the researchers, in the frames of engaged scholarship (Van de Ven, 2007). The specific organization where the Future Workshops were conducted was Roskilde University Library (RUB). The purpose of the Future Workshops was to get ideas to improve the library’s face-to-face, electronic services (e-services) as well as the library’s physical facilities. The major finding of the study is that Future Workshops can be a useful method for engaging research in services innovation both from a practice and a research point of view.
Peter G. Klein
This chapter utilizes the economic theory of organizations to provide an analysis of central banking and the U.S. Federal Reserve System. Challenges to independent central banking systems such as information issues regarding the optimal quantity of money for society and bureaucratic issues are explored. The role and performance of the Federal Reserve leading up to the Great Recession and during the aftermath are assessed. Federal Reserve independence and power are explored. The chapter debates the need for a central bank, ultimately concluding with a discussion of alternatives to the current state of central banking. Keywords: Monetary policy, Federal Reserve, entrepreneurship
Ronald J. Burke
Police work has been described as one of the most dangerous occupations. Many police officers perform their jobs admirably, sometimes putting their lives at risk to save others. Other police officers exhibit destructive personal and job behaviours. Public trust in policing is critical for police work to be successful. This chapter examines risks to police officers, the police culture, police cynicism, and police behaviours and health. Stressors in policing include job demands, role demands, interpersonal demands and physical demands. Officers report greater stressors from organizational demands (from inside their organization-autocratic leadership than from operational demands (what they do everyday –interacting with citizens). New demands include increasing police force diversity, increasing community diversity, heightened scrutiny, and the need to reduce costs of policing. Consequences of stress in policing include cynicism, burnout, post-traumatic stress disorder, spouse abuse, and alcohol abuse. Initiatives found helpful in reducing sources of police stress include leadership training, education in improving coping behaviours, resilience training, and peer counselling.