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Whistleblowers as information sources

Convenience in White-Collar Crime

Petter Gottschalk

Whistleblowers attempt to disclose information about what they perceive as illegal, immoral, or illegitimate practices. Fraud investigators reconstruct the past after suspicions of misconduct and financial crime. Whistleblowers are an important source of information for many fraud investigators. In this chapter, characteristics of whistleblowers and their trustworthiness as information sources and the quality of pieces of information are discussed.

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Jane Claydon

This chapter focuses on the benefits of using a mixed methods approach when researching Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The author’s research investigates a sample of debtors’ and debt collectors’ perceptions of responsibility and blame for consumer debt by using a number of research methods: qualitative in-depth interviews, focus groups, and quantitative online surveys. Using mixed methods for the research approach was advantageous for a number of reasons: utilizing a number of methods ensures that the researcher can enjoy the qualities of several different research methods; further, using different methods enables the researcher to recognize and assess the validity and reliability of a single research method when comparing it against another. The author will outline to the reader the strengths, shortcomings, representativeness and validity of the aforementioned research methods, along with the sampling strategy used by the author as a CSR researcher. This chapter is aimed at early career researchers in the field of CSR to provide them with an overview of using a mixed methods approach in CSR research and, specifically, a more detailed insight into the methods of interviewing, focus groups and surveys, using the author’s research as a case study.

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Linne Marie Lauesen

Storytelling is a method for improved writing styles often used in fiction, drama, movies, and disciplines that work with a storyline. Academic writing has often been claiming that it differs from stories by its factual content. However, to convince its highly skilled readers, a proper storyline is also needed for the communicating part of writing scientific papers, books, or presentations. Thus, storytelling is as vital for scientific writing as well. This chapter shows the mechanisms of the Narrative Arc with examples from the literature in corporate social responsibility in order to make readers reflect upon their communicative performance. It aims to provide a tool to improve the writing skills of academic writers regardless of research methods.

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Testing convenience theory

Convenience in White-Collar Crime

Petter Gottschalk

This chapter tests convenience theory by studies of autobiographies. We were able to find a variety of statements produced by offenders that illustrate application of neutralization techniques in the behavioral dimension of convenience theory. Convenience theory is also tested in student elicitations, where students’ average responses indicate that issues in convenience theory are more important to determine white-collar crime than issues in society. The five most important issues are all convenience items.

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Subtle masculinities at work

Positioning Women in Science

Valerie Bevan and Caroline Gatrell

We suggest that the world of science favours ‘hegemonic’ forms of masculinity (Collinson and Hearn 1996; Connell, 2005), which take the form of subtle masculinities in the workplace that are taken for granted and unacknowledged. Subtle masculinities are enacted in three main ways: men support other men rather than women, praising women for their roles in operational or gendered supporting and ‘serving’ roles rather than for their roles as leading scientists; men exclude women from networks and decision making; and women take on roles which are ‘hidden’ such as activities needed to keep the laboratory functioning including preparing for accreditation, checking that equipment is being properly monitored or even that the laboratory is kept tidy.

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Student survey on convenience theory

Convenience in White-Collar Crime

Petter Gottschalk

To study convenience theory empirically, this chapter presents a student elicitation on white-collar crime. Student elicitation is derived from expert elicitation, where experts are asked to say something about the unknown. Expert elicitation seeks to make explicit and utilizable knowledge and attitudes in the heads of experts. Expert elicitation seeks to make explicit and utilizable the unpublished knowledge and wisdom in the heads of experts, based on their accumulated experience as well as their interpretation and reflection in a given context. Elicitation is defined as collecting information from people as part of human intelligence. An elicitation technique or elicitation procedure is applied to collect and gather information from people. Expert elicitation is defined as the synthesis of opinions of experts on a subject where there is uncertainty due to insufficient data.

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Julia Balogun and Linda Rouleau

This chapter provides a review of strategy as practice research on middle management sensemaking and strategic change. It develops an organizing framework that identifies existing contributions and high-priority research issues. The authors note that, consistent with its emphasis on what managers do, to date most middle management strategy-as-practice (SAP) research has focused on processes underlying middle managers’ interpretation of strategic change. They argue that more work is needed exploring temporal linkages and related constructs such as “sensegiving” and “sensebreaking.” The chapter concludes by outlining an agenda for future SAP middle management sensemaking research. Studies examining how sensemaking occurs both within and between managers, the limits of shared sensemaking, and the impact of emotions and social loyalties are highlighted. The chapter serves as a useful primer on SAP middle management research and encourages new innovative research by articulating a broadened research agenda.

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Bill Wooldridge and Steven W. Floyd

While middle managers’ potential for strategic influence is well accepted by contemporary strategy process scholars, the extent and limits of their influence are not well understood. Why some middle managers are involved in, and influence, the strategy process more than others remains an important research issue. Drawing from established theory and 86 job descriptions, this chapter identifies five types of middle management positions. The analysis points to a position’s type and degree of boundary spanning responsibility and its hierarchical status as key factors in strategic influence. The less a position represents either of these, the more transient and contingent (but not necessarily weaker) strategic influence becomes. Contingencies relevant to a position’s strategic influence appear to include the firm’s bargaining power and the level of social cohesion among a manager’s subordinates. The chapter contributes to the middle management strategy process literature by systematically identifying recurring types of middle management positions within contemporary organizations and drawing connections between these positions, the strategic challenges facing incumbents, and specific forms of strategic influence.

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Markku Jokisaari

The social network approach provides both the theory and methodology for a detailed examination of the characteristics of the social environment of leadership in an organizational context. This chapter presents the central characteristics of the social network approach and examines how they relate to leadership research. Thereafter, it considers the methodology of the social network approach, including the research design, sampling and data collection methods, and central measures of networks for use in data analysis. It also provides examples from leadership research that has capitalized on social network theory and methodology. Finally, it presents a detailed research example that includes the collection of network data and application of network analysis to understand the characteristics of social networks.

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Duygu Türker

As a viable multidisciplinary method, social network analysis (SNA) has been frequently used to reveal the nature and structure of relationships among different actors in a network or to analyse the network itself for a long time. This network perspective together with considering the relational aspects of phenomena can be particularly useful to conceptualize and analyse the social, economic, or political structures of social units. Therefore, this social network perspective can be also used in the analysis of the relational context of social responsibility and ethical issues. The purpose of the current study is to provide a viable understanding of the application of social network analysis (SNA) for corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature. In doing so, this study first provides a conceptual framework of SNA and then briefly discusses its paradigmatic stance and methodological approach based on the relevant literature. In the second section, it is analysed whether and how SNA can address our CSR related research problems over three selected research mainstreams: stakeholder management, collaborative social responsibility projects, and ethical conduct among employees.