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Liam Clegg

The World Bank remains one of the most prominent actors in the field of global development, and one of the foremost international organisations in contemporary global politics. Over its history, its lending for housing has mortgaged development by prioritising financial sector expansion over the needs of low-income groups. Through this book, Liam Clegg explores the drivers of World Bank operational practices, and the contribution of these operations to state transformations across the global South.
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Chloé Anne Vlassopoulos

This chapter retraces the emergence of climate migration as a global issue. It examines the role played by different actors, ranging from scholars from environmental and migration studies, to operational institutions such as the International Organisation for Migration and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, among others. Vlassopoulos develops an insightful analysis on how migration was constructed, in the context of environmental disturbances and then climate change, as a political issue – or, alternatively, as a consequence of climate change, or as a possible solution to issues raised by climate change. The chapter discusses the recent re-interpretation of climate migration within the loss and damage workstream in terms of institutional mandate and the difficulty of promoting the issue and the role for climate change institutions such as the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism without disempowering migration institutions.

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Susan F. Martin

This chapter reviews proposals towards an extension of complementary protection to individuals displaced across international borders by the effects of climate change and other environmental drivers. In particular, it discusses the outcomes of the Nansen Initiative, an intergovernmental initiative that sought to promote the development of a protection agenda through a series of consultation conducted from 2012 to 2016 under the leadership of Walter Kälin. In terms of process, Section II notes some parallels between this initiative and the developments which led to the adoption of the guiding principles on internal displacement. Section III recounts the origins and outcomes of the Nansen Initiative’s Agenda for Protection and its successor, the Platform on Disaster Displacement. The following section looks more closely into the Nansen Initiative’s recommendations on humanitarian admissions and deferral of deportation, a centrepiece of its protection agenda. The concluding section outlines the strengths and weaknesses in this approach to protection as well as next steps in this process.

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Frank Biermann and Ingrid Boas

Climate change may compel millions of people, largely in Africa and Asia, to leave their homes to seek refuge in other places over the course of the century. Yet the current institutions, organizations and funding mechanisms, including new soft law initiatives, are not sufficiently equipped to deal with this. The situation calls for new governance. Following a review of academic and popular debates focussed on defining this issue as climate ‘refugees’ or ‘migrants’, we advance in this chapter a blueprint for a global governance architecture on the protection and voluntary resettlement of climate migrants. We argue against the extension of the definition of refugees under the 1951 Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, and discuss the limited use of soft law mechanisms as these are largely focussed on state responsibility. Key elements of our proposal are, instead, a new legal instrument that builds on the responsibility of the international community and is specifically tailored for the needs of climate migrants—a Protocol on Recognition, Protection and Resettlement of Climate Migrants to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change—as well as a separate funding mechanism, a Climate Migrant Protection and Resettlement Fund.

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Ilona Millar and Kylie Wilson

In recent years, the issue of climate change-induced human displacement has been a topic of considerable legal scholarship. However, many proposals to address the problem have been criticized on the basis that international refugee law or a new rights-based international legal framework would not be well suited to respond to the particular displacement challenges associated with climate change. Meanwhile, within the international negotiations for a post-2020 climate change treaty, developing countries have proposed a dedicated climate change displacement facility. Although such a facility was not established as part of the Paris Agreement adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December 2015, climate change displacement has been included as part of the work program of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage Associated with Climate Change Impacts (Warsaw International Mechanism). This chapter argues that, building on the work of the Warsaw International Mechanism, the proposal for a climate change displacement facility under the UNFCCC provides a politically feasible, short- to medium-term international response to an issue that is unable to garner traction in other legal fora. This chapter also explores the potential mandate, functions and sources of funding for such a facility.

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The state socialist model

Mortgaging Development

Liam Clegg

World Bank lending for housing into state socialist housing systems was focused predominantly through the 1990s. In addition to providing a review of transformations in state socialist systems across the former Soviet Union and its near neighbourhood, the movements in China towards a market-based socialist model are reviewed. While across the former Soviet Union and its neighbourhood World Bank efforts to support the creation of marketised systems have achieved variable levels of success, in the case of China deep transformation has been realised. Nonetheless, concerns are flagged over the extent to which the housing needs of low-income groups have been incorporated into both World Bank lending and these reformed systems overall.

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Subhash C. Jain and Ben L. Kedia

The critical aspects of growth in India are described. First among them is the creation of jobs, which is examined in this chapter. India must create 10 million jobs annually. For this to happen, manufacturing is the key to prosperity. It leads to economies of scale, impacts innovation and has a multiplier effect on the rest of the economy. For India to boost manufacturing, it must pursue a variety of strategic steps such as the overhaul of labor laws, simplifying land acquisition, providing tax incentives, encouraging foreign investment and other innovations.

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Subhash C. Jain and Ben L. Kedia

The chapter focuses on four aspects of economic growth: enhancing agriculture and farm productivity; building and improving basic infrastructure related to transportation, communication, energy availability, networks and bureaucratic efficiency; strengthening education at all levels, from primary schooling to higher education; and emphasizing innovations to make the most of limited resources. If these aspects are addressed adequately, India will be able to achieve its growth objective in a short time frame and join the ranks of developed countries.

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Subhash C. Jain and Ben L. Kedia

India must pay attention to four supporting factors in addition to the areas elaborated in the previous two chapters to achieve its economic aspirations. These include provision of basic services to the citizenry such as food, drinking water, sanitation, housing, energy, health care, education and social security; strengthening the rule of law; encouraging competition among states, and public-private enterprises; and promoting India’s cultural heritage. India can learn from the experiences of other nations, particularly the United States, to realize its economic endeavors. But at the end of the day, it must develop its own unique solutions to make headway on all fronts.

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Subhash C. Jain and Ben L. Kedia

This book traces the history of India’s progress since its independence in 1947 and advances strategies for continuing economic growth. Insiders and outsiders that have criticized India for slow economic growth fail to recognize all it has achieved in the last seven decades, including handling the migration of over 8 million people from Pakistan, integrating over 600 princely states into the union, managing a multi-language population into one nation and resolving the food problem. The end result is a democratic country with a strong institutional foundation. Following the growth strategies outlined in the book and with a strong leadership, India has the potential to stand out as the third largest economy in the world in the next 25 to 30 years.