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Jan Fagerberg, Staffan Laestadius and Ben R. Martin

Europe is confronted by an intimidating triple challenge—economic stagnation, climate change and a governance crisis. What is required is a fundamental transformation of the economy to a new "green" trajectory based on rapidly diminishing emission of greenhouse gases, the authors contend. Much greater emphasis on innovation in all its forms (not just technological) is an answer. Following this path would mean turning Europe into a veritable laboratory for sustainable growth, environmentally as well as socially.

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Refugees, Civil Society and the State

European Experiences and Global Challenges

Ludger Pries

Ludger Pries explores the important moral, social and political challenge facing Europe and the international community: the protection of refugees as one of the most vulnerable groups on the planet.
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Ludger Pries

The chapter focuses on the civic engagement and social movements during the so-called refugee crisis of 2015. Which were the people and organisations that have been doing so much for the reception and accommodation of refugees? Who were their predecessors in Europe? Who got active and for what reasons? The answers to these questions will help to judge how sustainable their engagement will be. The chapter reveals the more ephemeral character of volunteering and the more durable quality of organizational networks related to refugee protection.

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Ludger Pries

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Jan Fagerberg and Bart Verspagen

The European economy is currently in a slump, the worst since the 1930s, with high unemployment and deteriorating welfare conditions for exposed segments of the population in several European countries, espcially in the Southern parts of the continent. Although this is often seen as a consequence of the financial crisis that hit the capitalist world in 2007-8 this is only part of the story.

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Jan Fagerberg and Koson Sapprasert

The term 'national innovation systems' surfaced for the first time during the late 1980s and, in the years that followed, several important contributions on this topic appeared. This paper investigates the role that this new literature plays within innovation studies and the world of science more generally and discusses the sources for its emergence.

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Jan Fagerberg

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Jan Fagerberg

The Nordic countries are among the richest in Europe and globally. They are known for having a more equal distribution of income than elsewhere, for highly organized, regulated and inclusive labor markets, for universal welfare states and for well-developed and free education systems.

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Jan Fagerberg

This authoritative and enlightening book focuses on fundamental questions such as what is innovation, who is it relevant for, what are the effects, and what is the role of (innovation) policy in supporting innovation-diffusion? The first two sections present a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge on the phenomenon and analyse how this knowledge (and the scholarly community underpinning it) has evolved towards its present state. The third part explores the role of innovation for growth and development, while section four is concerned with the national innovation system and the role of (innovation) policy in influencing its dynamics and responding to the important challenges facing contemporary societies.
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Jan Fagerberg and Manuel M. Godinho

The history of capitalism from the Industrial Revolution onwards is one of increasing differences in productivity and living conditions across different parts of the globe. According to one source, 250 years ago the difference in income or productivity per head betwen the richest and poorest country in the world was approximately 5:1, while today this difference has increased to 400:1 (Landes 1998). However in spite of this long-run trend towards divergence in productivity and income, there are many examples of (initially) backward countries that–at different times–have manged to narrow the gap in productivity and income between themselves and the frontier countries, in other words, to "catch up". How did they do it? What was the role of innovation and diffusion in the process? These are among the questions we are going to discuss in this chapter.