Europe is confronted by an intimidating triple challenge—economic stagnation, climate change and a governance crisis. What is required is a fundamental transformation of the economy to a new "green" trajectory based on rapidly diminishing emission of greenhouse gases, the authors contend. Much greater emphasis on innovation in all its forms (not just technological) is an answer. Following this path would mean turning Europe into a veritable laboratory for sustainable growth, environmentally as well as socially.
Jan Fagerberg, Staffan Laestadius and Ben R. Martin
Jan Fagerberg and Bart Verspagen
The European economy is currently in a slump, the worst since the 1930s, with high unemployment and deteriorating welfare conditions for exposed segments of the population in several European countries, espcially in the Southern parts of the continent. Although this is often seen as a consequence of the financial crisis that hit the capitalist world in 2007-8 this is only part of the story.
Jan Fagerberg and Koson Sapprasert
The term 'national innovation systems' surfaced for the first time during the late 1980s and, in the years that followed, several important contributions on this topic appeared. This paper investigates the role that this new literature plays within innovation studies and the world of science more generally and discusses the sources for its emergence.
The Nordic countries are among the richest in Europe and globally. They are known for having a more equal distribution of income than elsewhere, for highly organized, regulated and inclusive labor markets, for universal welfare states and for well-developed and free education systems.
Jan Fagerberg and Manuel M. Godinho
The history of capitalism from the Industrial Revolution onwards is one of increasing differences in productivity and living conditions across different parts of the globe. According to one source, 250 years ago the difference in income or productivity per head betwen the richest and poorest country in the world was approximately 5:1, while today this difference has increased to 400:1 (Landes 1998). However in spite of this long-run trend towards divergence in productivity and income, there are many examples of (initially) backward countries that–at different times–have manged to narrow the gap in productivity and income between themselves and the frontier countries, in other words, to "catch up". How did they do it? What was the role of innovation and diffusion in the process? These are among the questions we are going to discuss in this chapter.
Jan Fagerberg, David C. Mowery and Bart Verspagen
This paper analyses the co-evolution of science, technolgy and innovation policy and industrial structure in a small, open resource-based economy (Norway) The contributions of the paper are threefold. First, it develops an evolutionary and historically oriented approach to the study of the development of these policies that may have wide applicability. Second, it focuses on a particular type of innovation, innovation in resource-based activities, that differs in many respects from the more commonly studied case of innovation in 'high-tech' industries. Third, the paper advances our understanding of the roles played by institutions and politics in innovation.
The Quest for Inclusive Development
Uma Rani and Ratna Sen
India has experienced an impressive annual growth rate of nearly 7 per cent since the mid-1990s. Yet this has not led to improvements in the quality of employment and the proportion of low-paid workers has increased over the decade to 2012 along with increasing inequality. The period has also seen an increase in informalization of industrial labour in India associated with greater use of subcontracting and contractual and temporary workers. This chapter assesses the role of industrial relations institutions in improving productivity, wages and incomes for workers. At the same time, it shows that collective bargaining has remained limited in scope and restricted to the formal sector. While there have been some attempts to reach out to workers in the informal sector, these have focused on securing basic welfare rights. The chapter examines emerging labour relations institutions that are delivering improvements to informal workers. It argues that to be more inclusive, the organizational basis for collective labour relations needs to be strengthened, drawing on new forms of voice in the informal sector.