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David Brady, Sharon Oselin and Kim M. Blankenship

The authors investigate the prevalence and correlates of material deprivation among female sex workers (FSWs) in India. Building on literatures on working poverty, the informal economy and sex work, they propose that material deprivation is influenced by household characteristics, human capital and working conditions. Data are drawn from Project Parivartan, which includes large samples in three waves of surveys in Andhra Pradesh, India. The measures of material deprivation include whether the respondent has electricity, running water, bathroom, or telephone in the home, and whether she has missed a meal in the past seven days, not saved money in past six months, is in debt, has been evicted in past five years, and a summary count of these eight indicators. The results reveal that material deprivation is high and widespread among FSWs. A clear majority of FSWs have not saved money, do not have running water or phones in the home, and are in debt. Near majorities do not have electricity in their homes, or have missed a meal in the past seven days. Altogether, the average FSW experiences 4.75 forms of deprivation, and over 90 percent experience at least three forms. For the specific outcomes of material deprivation, the most influential set of factors are arguably working conditions. For the summary count of the eight indicators, however, household characteristics are most influential.

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Luis Maldonado, Joaquin Prieto and Juan Carlos Feres

The chapter examines patterns of in-work poverty in contemporaneous Chilean society. The study presents in-depth information on institutional context and quantitative analysis from the National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey (CASEN) for the period 1990–2013. Cross-national comparisons indicate a significant incidence of working poverty in Chile. The authors associate this pattern with characteristics of the Chilean institutional contexts, mainly significant labor informality, strong labor market regulations and a welfare system based on mean-testing and a conservative male-breadwinner model. Micro-analysis with household survey data for 2013 provides evidence in favor of these associations. Furthermore, longitudinal analysis of the period 1990–2013 indicates that strong welfare retrenchments during the 1990s are associated with increases in in-work poverty, but only when relative measures are used. Results based on absolute poverty indicate a negative trend with stagnation in recent years. On the basis of the findings, the authors suggest implications for policy and research.

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Heather Stewart and Rod Gapp

This chapter provides an understanding of the imbedding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) within small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), through continual learning achieved by organizational development processes. Through an interpretivist case study, we investigated the collaborative relationships of 10 Australian organizations. Benefits of these relationships are reflected in improved returns, increased efficiencies, and enhanced stakeholder relationships. From these benefits, improved problem solving, change intervention, and implementation were evidenced, and supported a causal relationship between positive collaboration and mutual learning. The metaphor of a tree, the ‘collaborative ecosystem model’ is used to explain these relationships and the developmental stages explored; from seed to sprouting of the tree is depicted in terms of theory, corresponding action, and behaviours.

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David Littlewood and Diane Holt

The phenomenon of social entrepreneurship has proliferated in recent times. Concurrently, scholarly interest in and work examining social entrepreneurship has also blossomed. Yet there remains much about social entrepreneurship that we still do not know, whilst authors continue to highlight limitations in the state of theory development within the field of social entrepreneurship research. This chapter contributes towards advancing social entrepreneurship scholarship, and addressing these limitations, by exploring the insights, application and value of corporate social responsibility (CSR) theory for social entrepreneurship research. To do this, two key CSR theories: stakeholder theory and Carroll’s CSR pyramid, are analysed. We consider how both theories need to be adapted for a social enterprise context, before presenting a revised stakeholder theory of the social enterprise, and introducing the social enterprise responsibility pyramid. Although discussions in this chapter are principally conceptual, illustrative supporting examples are drawn from case study research with small and medium sized social enterprises in sub-Saharan Africa.

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Burcin Hatipoglu

Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have an important role in achieving sustainability aims throughout the supply chain management. SME characteristics and SME sustainability behaviour are different from those of large organizations, yet sustainability in supply chains is most often studied from the point of view of large organizations. This chapter challenges the current understanding of SME sustainability performance by considering in detail buyer organization demands, together with contextual factors that transform SME resources and capabilities during the phases of sustainability implementation. In order to provide a more comprehensive view of supplier SME sustainability performance, it is useful to utilize complementary theories from different disciplines. This chapter, which is conceptual in nature, contributes to the literature by providing a framework for emerging country contexts. The SME resources and capabilities for sustainability performance framework can be used to build an analytical basis for empirical research to close the gap between current sustainable supply chain management practices and theoretical explanations, with a particular focus on supplier SMEs. Managerial implications of this framework are discussed in the final section of the chapter.

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Diego Vazquez-Brust and Laura J. Spence

Going beyond research on corporate social responsibility and sustainability issues in global supply chains, this chapter takes a practical look at how small business social responsibility and sustainability issues can be meaningfully measured, especially from the perspective of small- and medium-sized enterprises. Taking a particular focus on the environmental aspects of social responsibility and sustainability, the chapter provides guidance in terms of principles of environmental performance measurement and offers a general overview of two outstanding sustainable supply chain assessment tools. Our empirically based illustrative case suggests that metrics for waste management in small British companies are likely to provide better information about quality of waste management and its impact when they are: collected by stream of waste identifying total weight and waste management solution; and analysed using relative, context-based and impact-weighted indicators.

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Rense Nieuwenhuis and Laurie C. Maldonado

Single-parent families face unique challenges when it comes to in-work poverty. Without a second caregiver and earner, single parents have to compete with dual-earner couples for their position in the earnings distribution. Facing precarious employment and gendered wage inequality, single-parent families face a high risk of experiencing poverty even when they are working. This chapter presents empirical evidence on in-work poverty and inadequate wages in the policy context of 18 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. The impact of family structure, occupation, regulations of part-time work, paid parental leave, and various redistributive policies are examined. The authors distinguish three distinct patterns of performance in countries’ approaches to in-work poverty among single parents: a balanced approach of ensuring low inequality on the labor market combined with redistribution; an unbalanced approach of combating in-work poverty mostly through redistribution; and an approach in which high inequality on the labor market is compensated with redistributive policies to only a very limited extent. Countries that rely on a balanced approach to reduce inequality in the labor market, with respect to both class and gender, combined with an adequate level of redistribution, seem best situated for a durable reduction of poverty among working single parents.

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Edited by Laura J. Spence, Jedrzej G. Frynas, Judy N. Muthuri and Jyoti Navare

The vast majority of businesses globally are small. If business is to be socially responsible, we need to go beyond the westernised concept of 'Corporate Social Responsibility', to develop 'Small Business Social Responsibility'. This agenda-setting Research Handbook on Small Business Social Responsibility includes leading research from around the world, including developed and developing country contexts. It provides a foundation for the further development of small business social responsibility as a scholarly subject and crucially important practice and policy field.
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Protecting Minority Rights in African Countries

A Constitutional Political Economy Approach

John M. Mbaku

In this enlightening book, John Mukum Mbaku analyses the main challenges of constitutional design and the construction of governance institutions in Africa today. He argues that the central issues are: providing each country with a constitutional order that is capable of successfully managing sectarian conflict and enhancing peaceful coexistence; protecting the rights of citizens – including those of minorities; minimizing the monopolization of political space by the majority (to the detriment of minorities); and, effectively preventing government impunity.
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Sreevas Sahasranamam and Christopher Ball

In recent years, social entrepreneurship has attracted increasing attention thanks to existing successful initiatives, such as the Ashoka Foundation, a global network of social entrepreneurs, and the work of social entrepreneur and Nobel laureate Muhammad Yunus. This has led to a flourishing academic research stream seeking to understand the phenomenon of social enterprise. Recent research in social entrepreneurship has also stressed the need to understand the effects of the institutional context on social enterprise. As an attempt to respond to this need, we examine the cases of two social enterprises, one operating in a developed country context, namely Scotland, and the other in a developing country context, namely India. We draw on the literature on institutional theory to compare the influence of institutions on social entrepreneurship across the two countries. We employ Whitley’s (1999) National Business System (NBS) perspective, which argues that the institutional context has an important role in guiding economic behaviour and identifies the principal environmental dimensions that would be expected to impact on the behaviour of entrepreneurs. It is proposed that comparing a developed and developing country context will provide valuable insights into the wider triggers of social entrepreneurship that may differ between the two settings. The potential value of social entrepreneurship to policy makers as a response to intractable social and environmental problems that plague both the developed and developing world cannot be overstated. In comparing the two institutional contexts, mutual lessons emerge as to how to design policies to unleash the power of social entrepreneurship to tackle these issues.