The resource curse literature frequently mentions Norway as a rare case of successful governance among oil exporters. Three major prosecuted cases involving bribery of foreign public officials show that international pressure and conventions, as well as a proactive approach among domestic law enforcement, is forcing Norwegian firms to adapt to a new anti-corruption regime. While firms continue to meet extortionate demands for illegal payments, bribery has become far riskier and managers know they can face personal liability. Ongoing evaluation of Norway’s anti-corruption commitments should expand to include an assessment of its foreign policy objectives. Keywords: Norway, petroleum exports, foreign bribery, corruption, law enforcement, illegal payments
Birthe Eriksen and Tina Søreide
Ussif Rashid Sumaila, Jennifer Jacquet and Allison Witter
Corruption risks in fisheries affect marine environments, global food security, national economies and local livelihoods in coastal communities. Undermining management goals and eroding local incentives for responsible resource stewardship, corrupt fisheries practices are difficult to address. A raft of measures for improving oversight and management control have been proposed, but gaps in their implementation and loopholes in even the best monitoring systems mean it is difficult to address all types of corruption threatening fish stocks. Solutions may lie in strengthening fisher participation in management to improve compliance and legitimacy at local levels. Keywords: Marine fisheries, corruption, resource stewardship, local livelihoods, commodity chains, monitoring systems
Given the potential for bad urban governance to fuel kleptocratic practices, exacerbate inequalities, and further marginalize the livelihoods of billons of urban poor, more attention should be paid to cities as units of analysis, and to urban land in particular. As this chapter insightfully notes, the challenges of urban land governance not only results from the sheer value of this very political resource, but also from the role played by urban land as an investment vehicle to launder the money made through illicit exploitation, corruption and tax evasion associated with other natural resource sectors. Keywords: Urban land, land governance, money laundering, tax evasion, corruption, urban poverty
Päivi Lujala and Levon Epremian
Transparency and public accountability are core concepts in anti-corruption policies. This chapter on the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative challenges the assumption that increasing transparency and informing the public about natural resource revenues will lead to more equitable revenue management. Policy and practice initiatives that cast people’s action, or lack of it, mainly as behavioural problems should more carefully consider how people manoeuvre within structures that may prevent collective action for change, and what can be done about it, rather than relying on the hope that transparency and public information will in themselves bring about effective forms of accountability. Keywords: Transparency, accountability, EITI, anti-corruption discourse, resource revenues
‘Tinkering’ with tea: science, technology and innovation policies in Tanzania’s agricultural research system
Allison Loconto and Emmanuel Simbua
The foundation of recent science, technology and innovation (STI) policy in Tanzania lay in providing the ‘proper’ conditions for encouraging investment in agriculture. The authors argue that imagining activities in tea research as ‘tinkering’ helps to explain the learning processes and gaps in STI policy. Detailing how the tea industry tinkers with investment in the sector in a process of learning by using, how international networks influence formal learning, and how learning by interacting produces incremental innovations in practice demonstrates this point. Drawing on Kuhlmann et al.’s (2010) three dances, the authors show that there is a dominance of theory, but not a dominance of theoretically driven results. Rather, the actors are tinkering with the opportunities at their disposal to create spaces for progress on policy indicators that do not always align with the theory that drives them. As a result, the authors see a government failure where the practices of technology adoption and innovation are not taken up in systematic ways. However, they argue that it is more appropriate to speak of tensions, rather than failures, as the situation also provides opportunities. By drawing upon insights from the notion of tinkering, the authors contribute to the critiques of STI policy that are raised within Tanzania.
Theoretical and policy failures in technologies and innovation for social inclusion: the cases of social housing, renewal energy and food production in Argentina
Hernán Thomas, Lucas Becerra, Mariano Fressoli, Santiago Garrido and Paula Juarez
The relationship between technology, innovation and social inclusion has recently acquired new relevance in social development forums and institutions. Nowadays it is possible to find a diversity of new concepts, approaches and initiatives of inclusive innovation. However, it is not clear how to avoid the failures of previous experiences in the development of technology for social inclusion. Two kinds of common failures in Latin America can be identified as theoretical and policy failures. The former is mainly based on the use of linear models of innovation and old technology transfer conceptions that tend to reduce poverty and social exclusion to a technical problem. The latter is associated with this problem but also adds the difficulties of lack of human resources, discontinuity of funding, and inability of social development institutions to conceive or sustain long-term strategies based on learning improvements. The chapter works on cases from Argentina in the areas of social housing, renewal energy and food production in order to understand: 1) what kinds of theoretical problems practitioners face; 2) how practitioners recognize the limitations and failures of their approaches and policies; and 3) what kinds of strategies practitioners attempt to implement to overcome these emerging issues.
Tensions of science, technology and innovation policy in Mexico: analytical models, institutional evolution, national capabilities and governance
Gabriela Dutrénit and Martín Puchet
The analytical framework used for science, technology and innovation (STI) public policy design worldwide is largely based on a systemic/evolutionary approach and, empirically, it is based on countries with specific initial conditions – the central economies and some successful Asian economies. These countries have specific trajectories of institutional building, political culture and STI capabilities, which shape their national innovation systems (NIS). A central issue in understanding the trajectories and the chances of success or failure of policies emanating from these models, and variants that aim to adapt to developing economies, is to analytically conceive the role of the institutional framework, the rules of the game in operation in the system, the governance at national, sectoral and regional levels, and some aspects of the political economy in the recipients’ countries. These affect the STI practice and policy, contribute to feeding tensions that militate against the building of a sustainable NIS, and are country specific. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the experience of STI policy making in Mexico, considering the international model and the interaction between the trajectory of institutional building, the process of construction of both the government and the governance of the NSI, and the political economy. This chapter argues that a set of rules and actions are formed and built from the STI practice; they allow or block actions in governance processes. The data used to inform our arguments are based on the STI laws and regulations, transcripts of board meetings and interviews with key agents of the NSI.
Festus Boamah and Aled Williams
Strengthening formal control and oversight institutions is a common policy prescription for addressing corruption in natural resource sectors and escaping from the resource curse. This chapter problematizes this approach, arguing that contested notions of land entitlements provide leeway for powerful local actors to re-invent customs aimed at justifying the appropriation of valuable resources at the expense of weaker groups. In Ghana, where rival institutions jostle for authority to control natural resources, generating desirable outcomes requires more than tightening existing controls or creating new regulations. Keywords: Ghana, biofuel, land tenure, bribes, contested authority, customary practices
Gillian M. Marcelle
Science, technology and innovation (STI) policy in the global South is underperforming partly because the starting point of policymaking is often not as relevant to context as it ought to be. To correct this policymakers should draw more from their lived reality and ask deeper questions rather than accepting the status quo. STI policy in many developing countries has paid insufficient attention to the perspectives of innovation performers and that policy is either silent or deeply flawed. This chapter provides a Kuhnian explanation as to why there has been limited progress by suggesting that innovation studies is experiencing a period of intellectual lock-in characterized by the dominant tradition crowding out other voices, explanations and traditions rather than accepting richness and diversity. Micro-foundation explanations, particularly a focus on learning and capability building, and user perspectives on innovation do not receive as much attention as systems perspectives. In addition, there is a near invisibility of Southern voices in the conceptual agenda and the specifics some developing country regions such as Africa and small island nations are ignored even by so-called development institutions, with the result that, even when innovation studies is operationalized in development programming, it is framed as though the conceptual underpinnings have emanated from the global North. Many interventions and transformations are needed to improve the performance of STI policy in the global South.
Science, technology and innovation for what? Exploring the democratization of knowledge as an answer
Rodrigo Arocena and Judith Sutz
A quite widespread dissatisfaction with the contributions of science, technology and innovation to development and to confronting inequality is analysed. Some strategies for improving such contributions are considered. One of them aims indirectly at social inclusion via fostering economic competitiveness and job creation. Other strategies aim to connect innovation directly with social inclusion, mainly by fostering innovations made not only for but by the marginalized people themselves. It is argued that both strategies are needed but that they should be complemented by another one aiming to connect directly high-level science and technology with social policies. This is characterized as a type of knowledge democratization. The potential contribution of universities to the last strategy is discussed and exemplified.