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There is no strength and power except in Allah (swt).1 To Him comes the praise, the Savant, the Wise, the Omniscient, the most beautiful names belong to Him. May the blessing of God and peace be upon Muhammad (saw) and all the Prophets (saw) from the first to the last.

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First of all, I would humbly like to acknowledge King Abdulaziz University (KAU) and its prestigious Islamic Economics Institute (IEI) for supporting us with every facility in research, academic and human capital development activities. It is also a great honor for me to acknowledge His Excellency Professor Dr Abdulrahman Obaid AI-Youbi, the President of King Abdulaziz University, Professor Dr Yousef Abdul Aziz Al Turki, the Vice President of King Abdulaziz University and Dr Abdullah Qurban Turkistani, Dean of the Islamic Economics Institute for their continuous support and encouragement. Also my respected fellow colleagues from the IEI, KAU, Mr AbdulRahman M. AlSobhi (CEO, Thawan Group Company, KSA), Ckg Idrus bin Ismail, other universities, industries and professional firms whose direct and indirect support is wholeheartedly acknowledged.

Mohd Ma’Sum Billah

I would like to thank my students all these years for the continuous learning from each other.

Christos Alexakis

I wish to thank my teachers for their teachings, my friends for their wise counsel and my partners for the trust they gave me. I want to thank especially Mrs Aberrou, Mrs Aionnas, Mrs Family, Mrs Gialdini, Mrs Le Goff, Mrs Nguyên, Mrs Rezig, Mrs Tebiel, Mrs Thiagaraja, Mr Aazib, Mr Belabes, Mr Boudjellal, Mr Chapelotte, Mr Chapra, Mr Dardenne, Mr Garcia, Mr Geoffroy, Mr Ghilli, Mr Gomez, Mr Hassani, Mr Hazoug, Mr Hideur, Mr Jaffer, Mr Lallmahamood, Mr Laramée, Mr Laaradh, Mr Lecomte, Mr Mechouek, Mr Mezamigni, Mr Miah, Mr Nekaa, Mr Ould Sass, Mr Pradier, Mr Rekkab, Mr Sadok, Mr Seghir, Mr Seydi, Mr Sini, Mr Tissot, Mr Volwes and Mr Wilson.

Ezzedine Ghlamallah


1. A eulogy formula is a phrase of prayer or praise that Muslims utter after the mention of the name of God, of prophets or important persons. It is indicated after the mention of God “” (swt) for “splendor of His Majesty” and after the mention of Muhammad” (saw) for “that the prayer of God and Peace be upon him”.