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‘Afw: Forgiveness.
‘Ahd: Covenant.
Ahkam: The plural of Hukum, which means rules, provisions and laws.
‘Amal: Work, service.
Amanah: Trust.
‘Amm: General.
Ansar: The helpers, the people of Madinah who welcomed the Holy Prophet (saw) and his companions who migrated from Makkah and other places to the city of Madinah.
‘Aqd: Contract.
‘Aqilah: The paternal relatives who pay the blood money. The doctrine of al-’Aqilah had been practiced among the ancient Arab tribes, in which it was an implied mutual agreement among the tribes that, if anyone is killed unintentionally by a person of a different tribe, the killer’s paternal relatives used to take the responsibility to make a mutual contribution for the purpose of paying blood money on behalf of the killer, to the victim’s relatives. This doctrine later was recognized by the Holy Prophet (saw) in one of his judgments against a woman from the tribe of Huzail. This is a foundation doctrine on which today’s Islamic insurance practices have been based and developed.
Asl: Origin.
Ayat: A verse of the Holy Qur’an.
Badr: A place near to the coast, about 95 miles to the south of Madinah, where in the second year of the Hijrah calendar the first battle took place between the Muslims and the non-believers.
Baitul mal: Treasury.
Baligh: Person who has attained the age of puberty.
Bani: The tribe or clan.
Batil: Void, falsehood, nullity.
Bay: Sale.
Bayyinah: Evidence, proof.
Da’wah: Claim.
Dalalah: Astray.
Dalil: Authority.
Daun: Disease.
Dawa’: Medicine.
Dayn: Debt, liability.
Dhaman: Liability for making up any loss, responsibility, guarantee, warranty, surety.
Dharurah: Necessity.
Dhawu al-Arham: Relations connected through females, a term used in law of inheritance for a specific group or person for the right in inherited property.
Dhawu al-Faraid: Referring to a specific person whose shares in inheritance have been determined in the Holy Qur’an.
Dhimmah: Responsibility.
Dhimmi: A non-Muslim living under the protection of a Muslim ruler.
Din: Religion.
Dinar: Islamic currency (gold).
Dirham: Islamic currency (silver).
Diwan: The early Muslim finance department.
Diyah: Blood wit, blood money, a monetary compensation against unjustified murder.
Fadl: Excess, additional, surplus.
Faidah: Additional.
Fallah: Success, victory, achievement.
Fals: Currency.
Faqir: Poor, destitute, needy.
Faqr: Poverty.
Fara: The individual case of the law as distinguished from the original sources.
Faraid: Inheritance.
Fidyah: Compensation.
Ghair Mamluk: Unowned thing in which there is no title of ownership, a thing that belongs to no one.
Ghani: Wealthy.
Ghanimah: Things appropriated without difficulty.
Gharam: Damage, loss.
Gharar: Uncertainty. A transaction under Islamic Law should be held invalid if it involves the element of Gharar.
Gharim: Insolvent, principal debtor, bankrupt.
Hablul habl: A kind of uncertain sale practiced during the pre-Islamic era of ignorance.
Hadith: The tradition of the Holy Prophet (saw).
Hajj: Obligatory pilgrimage.
Halal: Lawful, valid.
Haq: Right.
Haram: Unlawful.
Hawalah: Transference, assignment.
Hibah: Gift.
Hijrah: Migration.
Hisbah: The institution of ombudsman.
Hudud: Plural of had, which means fixed punishment contained in the Divine sanction for some specific offences.
Hujjah: Proof, evidence.
Hukum: Rule, injunction, sanction, order, decree.
Huzail: Name of a tribe in the ancient Arab era.
‘Ilm: Knowledge.
‘Iwad: Consideration.
Jaez: Lawful.
Jahannam: Hell.
Janin: Fetus.
Jihad: Fighting in the cause of Allah (swt).
Jizyah: A kind of tax imposed on non-Muslims living in an Islamic state.
Jumhur: Majority of the Islamic jurist.
Junun: Insanity.
Kaffarah: Compensation, explanation.
Kafir: Unbeliever.
Katib: Clerk.
Khairat: Donation.
Khamr: Liquor.
Kharaj: Land tax.
Khiyar: Option.
Khulafa ar-Rashedun: The rightly guided four companions, namely: Sayyidina Abu Bakar (RA), Umar (RA), Uthman (RA) and Ali (RA).
Khutbah: Religious speech especially before the Jumaah prayer and the prayer of two Eid festivals.
Kifalah: Suretyship, bail, guarantee.
Lajnah: Committee, Council.
Lazim: Obligation, necessary, fully binding.
Li’an: Oath which is taken by both the wife and the husband when the latter accuses his wife of committing unlawful sexual activity and she denies it.
Maaqil: Mutual insurance societies of pre-Islamic Arabia constituted to collect a common mutual fund known as al-Kanz to insure against loss or damage.
Madhab: School of jurisprudence.
Mahrum: Deprived.
Maisir: Gambling.
Majnun: Insane, unsound mind.
Makhluq: Creature.
Makruh: Reprehensible, abominable and disapproved.
Mal: Wealth, property; thing.
Mandub: Recommended.
Maqasid: Purpose.
Mard: Illness.
Mard al-Maut: Death sickness, bed-ridden.
Marid: Ill.
Masadir: Sources.
Masalih al-Mursalah: The doctrine of public interest.
Maslahah: Utility or benefit, which necessitate protection of faith, life, progeny, property and nationality.
Maut: Death, demise.
Milk: Ownership.
Mirath: Inheritance.
Miskin: Destitute, needy.
Mithl: Similar, substitute, fungible.
Mu’amalah: Commercial transaction.
Mubaah: Permissible.
Mudarah: Harm, injury.
Mudharabah: Co-partnership where at least two parties are involved in a commercial transaction, in which one party provides capital, while the other offers skill in carrying out the business successfully in view of sharing the subsequent profits or loss accordingly. This is a financing technique adopted by all the Islamic financial institutions and in commercial activities in the contemporary world as opposed to the Riba (interest)-based financing technique.
Munfa’ah: Advantage, yield.
Mushaqqah: Hardship.
Musharakah: Partnership.
Mushrik: Polytheist.
Nafkah: Maintenance.
Nafs: Self, life.
Najsh: Offering a high price for something without having the intention of buying it, but just to cheat somebody else who really wants to buy it. Such a person may agree with the seller to offer a higher price before the buyer cheats them, in which case both this man and the seller are sinful. The seller may falsely tell the buyer that he (i.e. the seller) has previously bought the goods at a certain price, which is in reality higher than the actual price. (Sahih al-Bukhari, 1986, Vol. III, at p. x).
Naqd: Money, coin.
Nas: Text, definitive implication of the text.
Nasab: Relative, descendant.
Nasib: Luck.
Nasl: Lineage, progeny.
Nikah: Marriage.
Niyat: Intention.
Nizam: Discipline.
Qabul: Acceptance.
Qada’: Judgment(s), judiciary(s).
Qadr: Fate, predestination.
Qanun: Law, regulation, principles, rule.
Qard: Loan.
Qard al-Hasanah: A gracious loan.
Qarib: Recent.
Qarn: Century.
Qat’i: Definite.
Qatl: Homicide.
Qaul: Expression, opinion, view, speech.
Qawaid ul-Fiqhyyah: Juristic rule.
Qazf: False accusation of unlawful sexual intercourse.
Qiblah: The direction in which Muslims turn their faces in prayer.
Qisas: Retaliation.
Qiyas: Analogy, legal reasoning.
Qur’an: The Holy Book revealed by Allah (swt) through the Angel Gabriel (AS) to the last Prophet Muhammad (saw) as a complete system for mankind.
Quraish: Most respectable tribe among the ancient Arab tribes, in which the Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) was born.
Rabbul Mal: The capital provider in a profit and loss sharing financing technique. (Al-Mudharabah).
Raka’ah: A unit of prayer.
Rasul: Messenger.
Riba: Usury, interest that is unlawful in the Islamic Shari’ah. It is therefore unjustified or uncompensated excess in the exchange of counter values in the transaction of exchange when the excess revealed either through weight or measure or through benefit arising from delayed delivery. Today, most of the commercial transactions under conventional economy revolve around the elements of Riba.
Rizq: Livelihood, subsistence.
Rushd: Age of discretion, maturity, puberty, majority.
Sabab: Cause.
Sabi: Infant.
Sabr: Patience.
Sadaqah: Charity.
Sadaqatul Jariah: perpetual charity.
Safih: Prodigal.
Saghir: Minor.
Sahih: Valid, sound, authenticity.
Sajadah: The position of prostration in prayer.
Salam: The finishing action of prayer; forward sale contract with immediate payment.
Sanat: Year.
Sarf: Monetary.
Sayyid: Master, leader.
Shahadah: Witnessing.
Shahr: Month.
Sharat: Condition, term, warranty.
Sharb: Drinking.
Shari’ah: Islamic Law.
Sharikah: Partnership.
Shifa’: Cure.
Sidduzzara: The plugging of lawful means to an unlawful end.
Siyasah al-Shari’ah: Administration of justice.
Sultan: Governor, head of the state, ruler.
Sunnah: The saying, the action, and the approval of the Holy Prophet (saw).
Surah: A large unit of the Holy Qur’an. There are 114 Surah contained in the Holy Qur’an.
Ta’am: Food.
Ta’min: Insurance.
Tabarru’: Donation, charity.
Tabqah: Stage.
Tafsir: Interpretation, commentary.
Tahqiq al-Manat: The verification of the attributes of an established case in a new case re-offered for examination.
Tahrim: Prohibition.
Takaful: Mutual responsibility, an alternative term for Islamic insurance.
Talaq: Divorce.
Tamlik: Ownership.
Taqlid: Following the view of another without further question.
Tariqah: Path, system.
Tawakkul: Depending, putting trust.
Thaman: Cost, value, price.
Thawab: Reward in the hereafter.
Tijarah: Trade, business.
‘Ulama: Islamic scholars, jurists, academicians.
Ummah: The nation (Islamic).
‘Umr: Age.
‘Urf: Custom, usage, common practice.
Wadia’h: Deposit.
Wajib: Obligation, compulsory, mandatory.
Wakalah: Agency.
Wala’: A kind of relationship between the master who frees a slave and the freed slave.
Wali: Guardian.
Waqf: Charity, religious endowment testamentary bequest of real estate.
Wasilah: Mediation.
Wasiyah: Will, bequest.
Yad: Hand.
Yamin: Oath.
Zahr: Unambiguous.
Zakat: Compulsory tax imposed on certain categories of wealthy people.
Zawj: Couple.
Zulm: Oppression; suppression.
Al-akhām al-khamsa: The five moral values.
Fard: Mandatory.
Fatwa: Judicial advice.
Fiqh: Jurisprudence.
Hadith: Words, deeds, facts approved by the Prophet Muhammad (saw).
Hisab: account.
Ijara: Lease.
Ijmaa: Consensus.
Ijtihad: Effort of personal interpretation.
Ihsan: Beneficence.
Istihsab: Consideration of the practice in effect.
Istihsan: Legal preference.
Istihslah: Taking into account the general interest.
Istisna: Business contract.
Jahala: Deception, ignorance.
Khatar: Risk of loss, danger, insecurity.
Khatar al-Tariq: Guarantee to cover losses during journeys of traders’ caravans.
Maysir: Game of chance.
Mostarsal: New entrant to a market, uninitiated.
Mubah: Indifferent.
Mudarib: Entrepreneur.
Mufti: Jurisconsult with the ability to issue a Fatwa.
Musahamah: Voluntary contribution settled in the exchange of material benefits.
Murabaha: Sales contract at cost price plus a known profit margin determined in advance.
Musharaka: Investment partnership contract.
Muwakil: Mandator.
Nahd: Donation contract against compensation.
Nissab: Threshold of Zakat payment.
Oumma: Community of believers.
Ouqoud al-mouawaddat: Commercial exchange agreement.
Ouqoud at-tabarouat: Donation-based charity.
Qimar: Bet.
Rab el-Mel: Capital provider.
Ra’y: Personal opinion.
Retakaful: Islamic reinsurance.
Riba al-buyu: Sales surplus.
Riba al-fadl: Due to the passage of time or the extension of time.
Riba al-nassiah: Due to the surplus paid in an exchange of goods of the same nature.
Riba al-qurud: Loan surplus.
Sad Daraj’: Prevention of evil.
Sukuk: Plural of sak, ancestor of the word “check”, alternative to bonds (illicit in Islamic finance), investment certificate, financial product securitized.
Ta’awun: Mutuality, synergy, mutual aid, cooperation.
Wakil: Agent.