Chapter 7: Technological innovation systems and transport innovations: understanding vehicle electrification in Norway
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This chapter studies the electrification of the passenger vehicle segment in Norwegian transport using a technological innovation systems (TIS) framework to enhance our understanding of how such technologies are developed, introduced and scaled up. Within the context of transition away from fossil fuels, we investigate the strong growth of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and the corresponding lack of growth for hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), and how the TIS framework can shed light on emergence and mainstreaming of such transport innovations, and on obstacles to the innovation processes in transport. Following a functional analysis of each focal TIS, we consider the external linkages and structural couplings between the respective TISs and the Norwegian context. Key factors that contributed to the relative success of BEVs include early entrepreneurial activities, compatibility with the incumbent power system, and the delegitimizing effects of a recent hydrogen refuelling station explosion.