This chapter addresses the importance of transport innovations for society, as well as success and failure factors of such innovations. As such it introduces the reader to the scope, aims and rational of this multi-disciplinary book. This book aims to help understand success or failure of potential transport innovations, as well as their societal impacts. We define success as the real world implementation of potential transport innovations. The book is limited to complex innovations in which both public and private actors are involved. Next it makes explicit which policy instruments can influence the real world implementation of potential innovations, and it gives an overview of all chapters.