The concept of participation income (PI) was first introduced by Oxford and London School of Economics professor Anthony Atkinson (1944-2017) in 1996 when he published an article titled The Case for a Participation Income in The Political Quarterly. Participation income is a policy idea to reform social assistance schemes by reducing means-testing without giving up conditionality. The benefit is paid for those who contribute to the society or community in some way. This condition retains the reciprocity norm which has strong philosophical and pragmatic grounds. The forms of participation go beyond paid work marking a departure from both workfare and activation policies.