Globalization is an extremely complex phenomenon, both from a theoretical-conceptual and practical point of view, and has received the attention of a multitude of research from various disciplines. The Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE) is one of the most comprehensive proposals for the development of alternatives that address the problems caused by globalization. It also has the potential to address future challenges by prioritizing the needs of the people and the environment in economic decision making. This entry, first, analyzes the impact of globalization on local communities and economic relations and secondly illustrates how historical dynamics have influenced the viability of globalization. Finally, this entry will explain how the consequences of these historical dynamics have given rise to alternative approaches to globalization and economy, such as alter-globalization and the Social and Solidarity Economy.
Bretos, Ignacio, Millán Díaz-Foncea and Carmen Marcuello. 2018. 'Cooperativas e internacionalizaci√≥n: un análisis de las 300 mayores cooperativas del mundo'. CIRIEC-Espana Revista de Economia Publica, Social y Cooperativa, 92: 5‚Ä'37.
Bretos, Ignacio, Anjel Errasti and Aurélie Soetens. 2021. 'International Social Economy Organizations'. In The New Social and Impact Economy, ed. Benjamin Gidron and Anna Domaradzka, 245‚Ä'68. Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland.
Bretos, Ignacio and Carmen Marcuello. 2017. 'Revisiting Globalization Challenges and Opportunities in the Development of Cooperatives'. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 88 (1): 47‚Ä'73. https://doi.org/10.1111/apce.12145.
Dicken, Peter. 2011. Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours of the World Economy, 6th edn. New York: Guilford Press.
Harvey, David. 2005. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Levitt, Theodore. 1983. 'The Globalization of Markets'. International Executive, 25 (3): 17‚Ä'19. https://doi.org/10.1002/tie.5060250311.
Marshall, R. Scott. 2010. 'Conceptualizing the International For-Profit Social Entrepreneur'. Journal of Business Ethics, 98 (2): 183‚Ä'98. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0545-7.
Monz√≥n, José Luis and Rafael Chaves. 2012. The Social Economy in the European Union. Brussels: European Economic and Social Committee.
Rodrik, Dani. 1999. The New Global Economy and Developing Countries: Making Openness Work. Washington, DC: Overseas Development Council.
Roelants, Bruno, Eum Hyungsik and Elisa Terrasi. 2014. 'Co-operatives and Employment: A Global Report.' CICOPA. https://www.cicopa.coop/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/cooperatives_and_employment_a_global_report_en__web_21-10_1pag.pdf.