Chapter 13: Shared mobility towards urban climate resilience in the city of Johannesburg
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An overwhelming majority of the world's cities are dominated by and designed for motor vehicle use. Globally, urban transport accounts for approximately one quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions. This figure is expected to increase exponentially by 2050. In the pursuit of more resilient climate futures, it has become necessary to rethink transportation needs and systems. Cities from across the globe have started to address their transport challenges by developing policies that promote cleaner and less congested urban areas with improved traffic flow and the use of public mass transit and other non-private transport systems. 'Shared mobility' is increasingly considered as a more environmentally, economically, and socially responsible and less carbon intensive way to address growing transport needs in cities. Shared mobility includes car sharing, personal vehicle sharing, bike sharing, scooter sharing, ride sharing, on-demand ride services, shuttle services, and other emerging shared transportation industries. Shared mobility also extends to the public transit arena, allowing users access to publicly owned fleets of buses, mini-buses, trains, ferries, vehicles, shuttles and bicycles, for example. The role and potential of shared mobility options for addressing transport challenges and the full impact of climate change in the African urban context, and in particular South Africa, has not yet been fully explored. While the current state of transport in South Africa has not always been consistently and accurately monitored; it is generally maintained that the country's transport sector faces many challenges. This chapter critically considers the extent to which the law and policy framework in South Africa provides for and regulates shared mobility options as a means towards a more sustainable and climate resilient future. Specific emphasis is placed on the City of Johannesburg's minibus taxi industry, bus rapid transit system, Gautrain Rapid Rail and UBER as prominent modes of shared transport. The case of City of Johannesburg is employed to illustrate the level of regulation of shared mobility by different spheres of government (national, provincial and local) in South Africa's smallest, yet most rapidly urbanising and densely populated Gauteng province.

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