The chapter explores the interface of 'sustainable development' versus 'sustainable welfare'. We find an interaction, even overlap, between the concerns of the United Nations and associated organizations, and those of an expanding interdisciplinary sustainability research. Actors in the two spheres are partly challenging, partly inspiring each other, in clarifying the fruitfulness of conceptualizations. The publication of the report Our Common Future in 1987 had major impact on the subsequent international policy development, as well as on the academic debate on how to integrate the ecological, economic and social dimensions of sustainability. Finally, the chapter explores three successive stages of the adoption of effective policy for sustainable development, respectively dealing with ideational issues, political goal setting and strategies for implementation, including effective coordination. Here, we refer to the case of UN Agenda 2030 (adopted 2015), its 17 sustainable development goals and their practical coordination in member states, as case.