Chapter 1: Introduction
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In the Introduction we develop a conceptual framework designed for studying climate policy trajectories in countries with different political systems and with different energy mixes. The framework highlights factors that influence the likelihood for significant climate policy change. First, slow-changing factors that define the scope for climate policy change are identified as significant, in particular domestic fossil energy resource mix, energy security concerns and political institutional system. Second, the interplay between governmental supply of new policy initiatives and the level of societal demand for climate policy change is recognized as important for assessing the strength and form of pressure for climate policy change. The conceptual framework underpins the book’s in-depth analysis of climate policy development in seven key actors, and provides an important basis for understanding the prospects for a new international climate agreement.