The chapter summarises recent changes in the HR function. HR directors have developed strategic insight into their organisation, focusing their function on the need to look “into” the organisation, and its strategy, and help ensure the effective execution of change, as part of a team of other senior leaders. As such, they have had to evidence the contribution that people management can have to business challenges such as innovation, productivity, lean management, customer centricity, and the globalisation of operations and organisation capabilities. They have learned to understand the complexity of their organisation’s business models and the different options that exist in terms of organisation design. It notes two over-riding debates or narratives that have come to activity: the notion of talent management; forging a clear link, and line of sight, from the strategy and the changes in business model this often entails, and the engagement of the workforce. The chapter signals the re-emergence of a range of societal debates. It organises the future HRM research agenda into four topics: the role of HR strategy, structure and architecture; the role of key HR processes; key performance enablers and key performance outcomes.