Parental separation and divorce affect parent-child relations. This contribution sheds light on children, parents, and their relations after a parental break-up. It gives an overview of the theoretical approaches used in research on the determinants of post-separation parent-child relations. It addresses the consequences of parental divorce and separation for children and their parents, and discusses some of the major challenges post-divorce families face, including providing children with adequate information, dealing with normative disadvantages, managing the post-separation lives of family members, coping with multiple transitions, and handling family complexity. Post-divorce custody and contact models, and their effects on children and parents, are outlined. The chapter concludes by emphasising that more research is needed to understand and explain the considerable heterogeneity of post-divorce families.