Carbon dioxide emissions are the main cause of anthropogenic climate change and play a central role in discussions on climate change mitigation. Previous research has demonstrated that national carbon dioxide emissions are driven mainly by population size and wealth. However, the variation in per capita emissions of nations with similar standards of living and similar population is huge. This makes investigations on further drivers of emissions important because such research reveals mechanisms that can decrease emission levels. In this chapter we first describe the newest development of global CO2 emissions, both with respect to production-based emissions as well as with respect to consumption-based emissions. Furthermore, we analyze the main drivers of national per capita emissions. Particularly, we extend previous research by taking into account countries' shares of imports and exports, indicators of political interventions such as energy prices, and the use of renewable energy sources.