The electric power crisis that followed the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake revealed problems with the Japanese electricity supply system that has relevance for the countries everywhere. The challenges were not just restoring and maintaining supply of electricity in the aftermath of the earthquake. The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident called into question the safe regulation of nuclear power generation. This also has implications for the transition to a low-carbon and then zero-emission society as renewable energy sources become the primary sources of electricity. Moreover, domestic energy consumption is relatively small compared to that of the business sector so electricity supply and cost has implications for industrial competitiveness as well. This chapter provides suggestions for investment and regulatory oversight in order to deal with existing and potential crises in the energy sector.