Chapter 13: Conclusion: a meta-analysis of social marginality, governance capacity, and legitimacy in the MENA region
Open access

This chapter synthesizes the diverse insights presented in the preceding chapters in the book, with a particular focus on governance in the MENA region. Building on sociological theories - structural functionalism, conflict theory, symbolic interactionism, feminism, and social constructionism - the book employs a comprehensive analytical framework that hinges on the conceptual pillars of governance capacity and governance legitimacy. The book analyzes social problems facing six marginalized groups - migrant workers, refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs), children, youth, and women - and evaluates public policy responses in the realms of social protection, labor market policies, and political reforms through dedicated case studies. These analyses serve as real-world stress tests for evaluating governance capacity and legitimacy, not only through a comparative analysis of two pivotal crises - the Arab Spring and the COVID-19 pandemic - but also across different social demographics. Importantly, the pandemic exacerbated the crises instigated by the Arab Spring, further weakening governance capacity and legitimacy in the region. The chapter navigates the complexities of governance, revealing how these crises, alongside systemic inequities, have shaped the governance landscape in this region. Specific deficiencies in healthcare and social protection are highlighted, as well as gaps in the inclusivity and responsiveness of governance systems to the needs of diverse societal groups. The aftermath of the Arab Spring has illuminated both the fragility and the potential for innovation in MENA governance systems. The tension between democratic reforms and public expectations further complicates the understanding of governance legitimacy. Policymakers in the MENA region are thus tasked with leveraging the lessons learned from these multifaceted analyses to build more resilient, effective, and legitimate governance systems for the future.

  • Acker, J. (1990). Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: A theory of gendered organizations. Gender & Society, 4(2), 139–158.

  • Ali, S., Xu, H., & Ahmad, N. (2021). Reviewing the strategies for climate change and sustainability after the US defiance of the Paris Agreement: An AHP–GMCR-based conflict resolution approach. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23, 11881–11912.

  • Berger, P. L., & Luckmann, T. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. New York: Anchor.

  • Bevir, M. (2013). A new governance: Hierarchies, markets, and networks, c. 1979–2010. ISS Research Series, 55, 9–26.

  • Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

  • Brown, A., Kafafy, N., & Hayder, A. (2017). Street trading in the shadows of the Arab Spring. Environment and Urbanization, 29(1), 283–298.

  • Castles, S., & Miller, M. J. (2009). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. New York: Guilford Press.

  • Comfort, L. K. (2002). Rethinking security: Organizational fragility in extreme events. Public Administration Review, 62, 98–107.

  • Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 1, 139–167.

  • Della Porta, D. (2018). Solidarity Mobilizations in the ‘Refugee Crisis’. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Durkheim, É. (1893). The Division of Labour in Society. New York: Free Press.

  • Dobash, R. E., & Dobash, R. (1979). Violence against Wives: A Case against the Patriarchy. New York: Free Press.

  • Esses, V. M., Dovidio, J. F., Jackson, L. M., & Armstrong, T. L. (2001). The immigration dilemma: The role of perceived group competition, ethnic prejudice, and national identity. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 389–412.

  • Fagan, J., & Tyler, T. R. (2005). Legal socialization of children and adolescents. Social Justice Research, 18(3), 217–241.

  • Fergusson, D. M., Boden, J. M., & Horwood, L. J. (2013). Transition to parenthood and mental health in young adults. Psychological Medicine, 43(7), 1523–1533.

  • Fontes, L. A., & Plummer, C. (2010). Cultural issues in disclosures of child sexual abuse. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 19(5), 491–518.

  • Foucault, M. (1972). The Archaeology of Knowledge. New York: Pantheon.

  • Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (1994). Gendered Transitions: Mexican Experiences of Immigration. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • hooks, b. (1984). Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center. Boston, MA: South End Press.

  • Hussein, E. I. (2021). The position of BRICS towards the Syrian crisis. Journal of the Belarusian State University. International Relations, 2, 9–16.

  • Johnson Jr, J. H., & Oliver, M. L. (1989). Interethnic minority conflict in urban America: The effects of economic and social dislocations. Urban Geography, 10(5), 449–463.

  • Johnson, M. P. (2008). A Typology of Domestic Violence: Intimate Terrorism, Violent Resistance, and Situational Couple Violence. Lebanon, NH: Northeastern University Press.

  • Loader, B. D. (2008). Young Citizens in the Digital Age: Political Engagement, Young People and New Media. New York: Routledge.

  • Loseke, D. R. (2003). Thinking About Social Problems: An Introduction to Constructionist Perspectives. New York: Routledge.

  • Marx, K. (1867). Das Kapital. Hamburg: Verlag von Otto Meisner.

  • Ostrom, E. (2010). The challenge of self-governance in complex contemporary environments. Journal of Speculative Philosophy, 24(4), 316–332.

  • Piore, M. J. (1979). Birds of Passage: Migrant Labor and Industrial Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Rawls, A. (1971). A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Rothstein, H., Borraz, O., & Huber, M. (2011). From the ‘neurotic’ to the ‘rationalising’ state: Risk and the limits of governance. In C. de Franco & C. Meyer (eds.), Forecasting, Warning and Responding to Transnational Risks (pp. 187–207). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Scharpf, F. (1999). Governing in Europe: Effective and Democratic? Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Schmidt, J. R. (2013). Questioning conflict adaptation: Proportion congruent and Gratton effects reconsidered. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 615–630.

  • Sharma-Wallace, L., Velarde, S. J., & Wreford, A. (2018). Adaptive governance good practice: Show me the evidence! Journal of Environmental Management, 222, 174–184.

  • Smith, D. E., & Hunt, J. (2018). Building Indigenous Community Governance in Australia: Preliminary Research Findings. Canberra, ACT: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR), The Australian National University.

  • Standing, G. (2011). The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

  • Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (eds.), The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 33–47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

  • Torney-Purta, J. (2002). The school’s role in developing civic engagement: A study of adolescents in twenty-eight countries. Applied Developmental Science, 6(4), 203–212.

  • UNDP (1997). Good Governance in the Context of Extreme Poverty.

  • Zetter, R. (1991). Labelling refugees: Forming and transforming a bureaucratic identity. Journal of Refugee Studies, 4(1), 39–62.

Edited by
Monograph Book