Gender equality is central to the Sustainable Development Goals, including the education goal - SDG 4. Progress has been made towards equal numbers of girls and boys (gender parity) in attendance in formal schooling, with substantial improvements in Education Management Information Systems and documenting learning outcomes in reading and mathematics. Nevertheless, significant data-related challenges remain, relating to more substantive understandings of gender and intersecting inequalities, including uneven or non-existent availability of data, narrow focus of data and inconsistent reporting of data by countries. There is thus an urgent need to improve data collection and use. This chapter explores some of these challenges as well as attempts to address them. It makes particular reference to the Accountability for Gender Equality in Education (AGEE) project, which is developing an innovative indicator framework for gender equality in education, using existing data.

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