Chapter 2: A conceptual framework to assess missing data for SDG 4
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The existing monitoring framework of SDG 4 should address what is missing from its pillars and drivers when assessing countries’ progress across targets by improving the use of available data sources. This chapter introduces a more comprehensive framework for education indicators and presents an overview of dimensions of educational inequality that are missing from contemporary data regimes, as well as of educational processes indicated through household and learning surveys. Using seven targets and 14 indicators based on the SDG 4 framework, the chapter shows that there are around 45 per cent (N= 390) missing combinations of dimensions and investigates how these differ by country income and conflict status, and it identifies 42 new relevant dimensions for monitoring, yielding 1,854 combinations linked to child/youth conditions, the household and school levels. Systematically including these dimensions in the current data regime would be an opportunity to address wider marginalisation of those left behind in education systems.

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