Chapter 6: The role of equality law in addressing gender inequalities in work and employment relations: experiences from the European Union
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In the European Union continued labour market gender gaps affect employment, care, pay, and pensions. This chapter explores the role of equality law, in particular gender equality law, in addressing gender inequalities in work and employment relations. The focus is on experiences from the European Union, and the interplay between EU and Member State law. EU law presents a unique case of multifaceted and extensive regulation on gender equality at supranational/regional level. The chapter discusses the evolution and content of equality law and gender equality law in the EU and potentials and challenges in gender equality law in the EU, including the EU (2023/970/EU) Directive on Pay Transparency and the challenge of algorithmic discrimination. In conclusion, equality law in the EU is dynamic, extensive, and influenced by an ongoing process of constitutionalization. The content and strength of EU gender equality law, and its ability to effectively address current and future challenges are dependent on the interaction of EU law and Member State law, and the complex interplay between various legal actors, processes, and outcomes. A critical analysis of gender equality law, innovative research agendas, and interdisciplinary research approaches can contribute to legal developments and gender equality in practice.

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