Chapter 13: E-shopping, travel behavior, and society: a multi-level perspective on sustainable transitions
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As an alternative to shopping travel, e-shopping is a crucial innovation in transportation systems. From a multi-level perspective on sustainable transitions, this chapter argues that macro-contextual factors, including wide use of the Internet, rapid urbanization, overcapacity of industries, fast pace of life, unemployment issue, and COVID-19 outbreak, created an "opportunity window" for the emergence of e-shopping. Currently, e-shopping is in a growth phase, in which the socio-technical contexts have changed considerably to coordinate the e-commerce market, but still have conflicts with the market. These changes and conflicts result in a wide range of successes and failures in transportation and social systems, such as potential reduction in traffic congestion but increase in social isolation. By consolidating the existing literature, this chapter reveals that built environment factors have impacts on e-shopping. Therefore, implementing spatial planning strategies seems effective to manage online purchase behavior, thereby enhancing the successes and alleviating the failures.