Chapter 6: Exploring the civilian and political institutions of armed non-state actors under IHL in an age of rebel governance
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This chapter investigates the relevance of armed non-State actors’ (ANSAs) civilian and political wings under international humanitarian law (IHL). It offers insights into how such entities have been, and should be, dealt with by criminal courts and tribunals when adjudicating cases involving ANSAs exercising governance. It ends with some closing reflections on why ANSAs’ governance institutions have found themselves in such an ambiguous shadowland in international law, where the legal relevance of their existence is rarely discussed head-on or denied.

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