Zambia is a lower middle-income country with copper mining as the mainstay of the economy. However, the country is consistently ranked among those with high levels of poverty and inequalities. The Non-contributory social cash transfers are among major social protection pillars designed to reduce poverty, inequality, and vulnerability. The non-contributory social cash transfer programmes have demonstrated the potential to contribute to the reduction of extreme poverty, inequality, and vulnerability in Zambia. This is reflected in the increased food security, per-capita food consumption, asset accumulation, and child school enrolment among households receiving social cash transfers. However, the full potential of non-contributory cash transfer programmes in Zambia could be realized if appropriate measures are taken to address major challenges associated with programme design such as targeting, benefit size, and implementation modalities. It will require scaling up transfer-values; provision of supplementary support benefits; and promoting accountability in management of social cash transfers.