The events of 9/11 heralded the arrival of a new epoch in world affairs that has concerned itself with the study and analysis of what has come to be called the war on terrorism. But what is the underlying meaning of this term, terrorism? The confusion that has surrounded an accurate appreciation of what the notion of terrorism actually constitutes has presaged foreign and domestic policy mistakes that have done much to contribute to the undermining of the cohesion of Western societies. Other state arrangements, meanwhile, have dealt with the threats that ‘terrorism’ has seen to pose with much greater robustness. This chapter sets out the broad context in which contemporary research and scholarship seeks to evaluate how these complex themes that have manifested themselves, and that collectively illustrate how dramatically politics and geo-politics has changed over the past two decades.