Chapter 1: Urban paradigm shifts in emerging economies
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Most of the 20th century urban problems were framed as a shortage of infrastructure and services. Governments addressed this by planning cities in a centralised and hierarchical way. From the 1980s onwards, it became clear that central government failed to efficiently deliver tailored services and infrastructure. This led to the emergence of urban management. In the new millennium problems were reframed as wicked, resulting in the emergence of urban governance. However, old problems did not disappear. Faced with urbanisation, globalisation, climate change and Covid-19, cities in emerging economies experiment with new approaches such as smart, resilient, creative, sustainable and green cities, eclectically combining planning, management and governance perspectives. The chapter anticipates a new paradigm shift, whereby the era of market-led development comes to an end. Climate change and urban resilience are high on the political agenda and require a larger role of (local) governments and governance networks.